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Plos One : Natural Variation Identifies Multiple Loci Controlling ...

By: Hector Candela

Description : Natural variation in organ morphologies can have adaptive significance and contribute to speciation. However, the underlying allelic differences responsible for variation in organ size and shape remain poorly understood. We have utilized natural phenotypic variation in three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to examine the genetic basis for quantitative variation in petal length, width, area, and shape. We identified 23 loci responsible for such variation, many...

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Plos One : Implicit Versus Explicit Local Contextual Processing, V...

By: Joy J. Geng

Description : We investigated the effects of implicit local contextual processing using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. EEG recording blocks consisted of targets preceded by either randomized sequences of standards or by sequences including a predictive sequence signaling the occurrence of a target event. Subjects performed two sessions : in the first the regularity of the predictive sequence was implicit, while in the second this regularity was made explic...

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Plos One : N-type Thermoelectric Performance of Functionalized Car...

By: Aristides Docoslis

Description : Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and made into composites with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). CNTs were dispersed with different amounts of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) prior to the PEI functionalization. The resulting samples exhibit air-stable n-type characteristics with electrical conductivities as great as 1500 S/m and thermopowers as large as 2100 mV/K. Electrical conductivity and thermopower were strongly af...

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Plos One : Imperfect Implementation of an Early Warning Scoring Sy...

By: Jorge I.F. Salluh

Description : At the time of our study, the long-term implementation of WOC guidelines has not been completed satisfactorily. The lacking component in the implementation of MEWS and WOC is the documentation of action taken upon finding an abnormal value. Unsuccessful implementation could result in incorrect results from evaluation of an early warning system. We suggest a redesign of the training programme to educate staff in recognising and caring for critically ill pati...

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Plos One : Measuring Social Contacts in the Emergency Department, ...

By: Cédric Sueur

Description : We used RFID to quantify contacts between patients and staff in a busy ED. These results are useful for studies of the spread of infections. By understanding contact patterns most important in potential transmission, more effective prevention strategies may be implemented

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Plos One : Functional Contribution of the Transcription Factor Atf...

By: Weidong Le

Description : Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress represents an early pathological event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ATF4 is a key ER stress transcription factor that plays a role in both adaptation to stress and the activation of apoptosis. Here we investigated the contribution of ATF4 to ALS. ATF4 deficiency reduced the rate of birth of SOD1G86R transgenic mice. The fraction of ATF42/2-SOD1G85R transgenic mice that were born are more resistant to develop ALS,...

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Plos One : Interactive Effects of Ocean Acidification and Nitrogen...

By: Lucas J. Stal

Description : Climate change is expected to bring about alterations in the marine physical and chemical environment that will induce changes in the concentration of dissolved CO2 and in nutrient availability. These in turn are expected to affect the physiological performance of phytoplankton. In order to learn how phytoplankton respond to the predicted scenario of increased CO2 and decreased nitrogen in the surface mixed layer, we investigated the diatom Phaeodactylum tr...

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Plos One : Genetic Diversity Increases Insect Herbivory on Oak Sap...

By: Justin Wright

Description : A growing body of evidence from community genetics studies suggests that ecosystem functions supported by plant species richness can also be provided by genetic diversity within plant species. This is not yet true for the diversityresistance relationship as it is still unclear whether damage by insect herbivores responds to genetic diversity in host plant populations. We developed a manipulative field experiment based on a synthetic community approach, with...

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Plos One : Phylogeographic Characterization of Tick-borne Encephal...

By: Ulrike Gertrud Munderloh

Description : Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand...

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Plos One : Secondary Sympatry Caused by Range Expansion Informs on...

By: Patrick O’grady

Description : Islands are bounded areas where high endemism is explained either by allopatric speciation through the fragmentation of the limited amount of space available, or by sympatric speciation and accumulation of daughter species. Most empirical evidence point out the dominant action of allopatric speciation. We evaluate this general view by looking at a case study where sympatric speciation is suspected. We analyse the mode, tempo and geography of speciation in A...

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Plos One : Proper Indication of Brafv600E Mutation Testing in Fine...

By: Paul J. Van Diest

Description : The BRAFV600E mutation analysis was a useful adjunctive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with suspicious ultrasound features regardless of size.

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Plos One : Treatment with Activated Protein C Apc is Protective Du...

By: Tianqing Peng

Description : This data indicates that aPC treatment abrogates the fibrogenic response to AngII. aPC does not appear to confer protection by stimulating the endothelium but by acting directly on the infiltrating cells, potentially inhibiting migration or activation

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Plos One : Prospective Analysis of the Association of a Common Var...

By: Struan Frederick Airth Grant

Description : We confirmed the association between the FTO rs9939609 and body mass and overweight/obesity risk in European children. The main finding of the study is that the A allele carriers present higher increase of body mass and central adiposity over time and higher risk of developing overweight/obesity during growth, independently from intervention measures.

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Plos One : Interspecific Resource Competition Effects on Fisheries...

By: David L. Roberts

Description : In many fisheries multiple species are simultaneously caught while stock assessments and fishing quota are defined at species level. Yet species caught together often share habitat and resources, resulting in interspecific resource competition. The consequences of resource competition on population dynamics and revenue of simultaneously harvested species has received little attention due to the historical single stock approach in fisheries management. Here ...

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Plos One : Hand-held Tidal Breathing Nasal Nitric Oxide Measuremen...

By: Henrik Watz

Description : Hand-held TB-nNO discriminates significantly between PCD, CF and HS and shows promising potential as a widespread targeted case-finding tool for PCD, although further studies are warranted before implementation.

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Plos One : Autonomic Substrates of the Response to Pups in Male Pr...

By: Allan V. Kalueff

Description : Caregiving by nonparents (alloparenting) and fathers is a defining aspect of human social behavior, yet this phenomenon is rare among mammals. Male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) spontaneously exhibit high levels of alloparental care, even in the absence of reproductive experience. In previous studies, exposure to a pup was selectively associated with increased activity in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons along with decreased plasma corticosterone. In...

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Plos One : Enhancing Pseudo-telepathy in the Magic Square Game, Vo...

By: Dennis Salahub

Description : We study the possibility of reversing an action of a quantum channel. Our principal objective is to find a specific channel that reverses as accurately as possible an action of a given quantum channel. To achieve this goal we use semidefinite programming. We show the benefits of our method using the quantum pseudo-telepathy Magic Square game with noise. Our strategy is to move the pseudo-telepathy region to higher noise values. We show that it is possible t...

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Plos One : Promyelocytic Leukemia Pml Protein Plays Important Role...

By: A. Neil Hotchin

Description : PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML2/2) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative...

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Plos One : Self-renewal and Pluripotency Acquired Through Somatic ...

By: Martin Pera

Description : Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed by transient expression of transcription factors in somatic cells. Approximately 1% of somatic cells can be reprogrammed into iPSCs, while the remaining somatic cells are differentially reprogrammed. Here, we established induced pluripotent cancer stem-like cells (iCSCs) as self-renewing pluripotent cell clones. Stable iCSC lines were established from unstable induced epithelial stem cell (iESC) ...

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Plos One : Titanium-tethered Vancomycin Prevents Resistance to Rif...

By: Stefan Bereswill

Description : Rifampicin is currently recognized as the most potent drug against Gram positive implant related infections. The use of rifampicin is limited by the emergence of bacterial resistance, which is often managed by coadministration of a second antibiotic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of soluble rifampicin in combination with vancomycin tethered to titanium metal as a means to control bacterial growth and resistance in vitro. Bacte...

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