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Mardi Gras

 

Mardi Gras

Mardi Gras, Carnival
Celebrations in New Orleans, USA
Also called "Fat Tuesday"
Type cultural
Significance Celebration prior to fasting season of Lent.
Celebrations Parades, parties
Date day before Ash Wednesday, 47 days before Easter
2015 date February 18
2016 date February 10
2017 date March 1
Frequency annual
Related to Shrove Tuesday; Carnival, Shrove Monday, Ash Wednesday, Lent, Maslenitsa, Valentine's Day

Mardi Gras , also Fat Tuesday[1][2][3][4][5] in English, refers to events of the Carnival celebrations, beginning on or after the Epiphany or King's Day and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday. Mardi Gras is French for "Fat Tuesday", reflecting the practice of the last night of eating richer, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season.

Related popular practices are associated with celebrations before the fasting and religious obligations associated with the penitential season of Lent. The date of Fat Tuesday coincides with that of celebrations of Shrove Tuesday, from the word shrive, meaning "confess".[6]

Contents

  • Traditions 1
  • Belgium 2
  • Brazil 3
  • Germany 4
  • Italy 5
  • Netherlands 6
  • Sweden 7
  • United States 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Traditions

Popular practices on Mardi Gras include wearing masks and costumes, overturning social conventions, dancing, sports competitions, parades, debauchery, etc. Similar expressions to Mardi Gras appear in other European languages sharing the Christian tradition, as it is associated with the religious requirement for confession before Lent begins. In many areas, the term "Mardi Gras" has come to mean the whole period of activity related to the celebratory events, beyond just the single day. In some American cities, it is now called "Mardi Gras Day".[1][2][3][4][5] It also has become a single people's counter to the coupled-centric Valentine's Day.[5]

The festival season varies from city to city, as some traditions consider Mardi Gras the entire period between Epiphany or Twelfth Night and Ash Wednesday.[7] Others treat the final three-day period before Ash Wednesday as the Mardi Gras.[8] In Mobile, Alabama, Mardi Gras-associated social events begin in November, followed by mystic society balls on Thanksgiving,[7][9] then New Year's Eve, followed by parades and balls in January and February, celebrating up to midnight before Ash Wednesday. In earlier times, parades were held on New Year's Day.[7] Other cities famous for Mardi Gras celebrations include Rio de Janeiro; Barranquilla, Colombia; Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago; Quebec City, Canada; Mazatlán and Sinaloa, Mexico; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Mobile, Alabama

Carnival is an important celebration in Anglican and Catholic European nations.[6] In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the week before Ash Wednesday is called "shrovetide", ending on Shrove Tuesday. It has its popular celebratory aspects, as well. Pancakes are a traditional food. Pancakes and related fried breads or pastries made with sugar, fat, and eggs are also traditionally consumed at this time in many parts of Latin America and the Caribbean.

Mardi Gras in Dakar, Senegal
Mardi Gras in Marseille, France
Mardi Gras in Binche, Belgium

Belgium

In the Belgian city of Binche, the Mardi Gras festival is one of the most important days of the year and the summit of the Carnival of Binche. Around 1000 Gilles dance throughout the city from morning until past dusk, whilst traditional carnival songs play. In 2003, the "Carnival of Binche" was proclaimed one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.

Brazil

Carnival is the most famous Brazilian holiday. During this time, Brazil attracts 70% of its tourists. Variations in carnival celebrations are observed throughout the multitude of Brazilian cities. Yet, a commonality observed among them is the incorporation of samba into the celebrations. The southeastern cities of Brazil have massive parades that take place in large sambadromes. The largest carnival celebration in Brazil and the world occurs in Rio de Janeiro, where two million people celebrate in the city. The city of Salvador also holds a large carnival celebration.

Germany

The celebration of Mardi Gras in Germany is called Karneval, Fastnacht, depending on the region.[10] Fastnacht means "Eve of the Fast", but all three terms cover the whole carnival season with famous parades held in Cologne, Mainz, and Düsseldorf on the Monday before Ash Wednesday, called Rosenmontag (Rose Monday). The traditional start of the carnival season is on November 11 at 11:11am (11/11 11:11).

Italy

In Italy Mardi Gras is called Martedí Grasso (Fat Tuesday). It's the main day of Carnival along with the Thursday before, called Giovedí Grasso (Fat Thursday), which ratifies the start of the celebrations. The most famous Carnivals in Italy are in Venice, Viareggio and Ivrea. Ivrea has the characteristic "Battle of Oranges" that finds its roots in medieval times. Italy is the birthplace of Carnival celebrations, having its origins in the ancient Roman festival of Saturnalia. The Italian version of the festival is spelled Carnevale.[11]

Netherlands

The Netherlands also has a festival similar to Mardi Gras. It's called Carnaval and is similar to the Venice Carnival. The origin of the word Carnaval is 'Carne Vale' which means "Goodbye to the meat" in Latin. It marks the beginning of lent leading up to Easter.

The carnival in the Netherlands is mainly held in the southern part of the Netherlands in the provinces of Noord-Brabant and Limburg, some parts of Zeeland and in eastern parts of Twente and Gelderland. As with many popular festivals, people tend to loosen some moral codes and become laid-back or loose, which is based in the ancient role-reversal origins of Carnaval, including dressing in costumes.

Sweden

In Sweden the celebration is called Fastan, when you eat fastlagsbulle, also called Fettisdagsbulle . That name comes from the words "fett" (fat) and "tisdag" (Tuesday). Originally, this was the only day one should eat fastlagsbullar.[12]

United States

Mardi Gras 2010 celebrants in the French Quarter of New Orleans, in the traditional colors of purple, green, gold, and especially white

While not observed nationally throughout the United States, a number of traditionally ethnic French cities and regions in the country have notable celebrations. Mardi Gras arrived in North America as a French Catholic tradition with the Le Moyne brothers,[13] Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, in the late 17th century, when King Louis XIV sent the pair to defend France's claim on the territory of Louisiane, which included what are now the U.S. states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.[13]

The expedition, led by Iberville, entered the mouth of the

  • Traditional Cajun Mardi Gras Celebrations
  • Mardi Gras in Mobile, Encyclopedia of Alabama
  • Prof. Carl Nivale's Compleat Carnival Compendium and Mardi Gras Manual
  • Mardi Gras 2014 celebration photos
  • Mardi Gras 2009 celebration photos
  • Where to Celebrate Mardi Gras Around the World - slideshow by The Guardian
  • Fashion plates featuring historic Mardi Gras costumes from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries

External links

  1. ^ a b In London, Mardi Gras season: "Paul's Pastry Shop kneads a ton of dough in Picayune", Allbusiness.com, 2009, webpage: Allbusiness-35.
  2. ^ a b In New Orleans, Mardi Gras season: "Mardi Gras in New Orleans | Metro.co.uk", Metro.co.uk, 2009, webpage; Metro.co.uk-2315.
  3. ^ a b In Mobile, Mardi Gras season: "New Orleans has competition for Mardi Gras", USATODAY.com, February 2006, webpage: USATODAY-com-mardi.
  4. ^ a b In San Diego, Mardi Gras season: "sandiego.com - Mardi Gras in San Diego: FAQ's", SanDiego.com, 2008, webpage: SanDiego.com-SD.
  5. ^ a b c In Texas, Mardi Gras season: "Let’s Celebrate: Mardi Gras 2008", Southernbyways.com, January 2008, webpage: southernbyways-com-TX.
  6. ^ a b Melitta Weiss Adamson, Francine Segan (2008). Entertaining from Ancient Rome to the Super Bowl.  
  7. ^ a b c "Mardi Gras Terminology". "Mobile Bay Convention & Visitors Bureau". Retrieved November 18, 2007. 
  8. ^ "The Season of Lent". Crivoice.org. January 7, 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Mobile Carnival Association, 1927", MardiGrasDigest.com, 2006, webpage: mardigrasdigest-Mobile.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^  
  12. ^ "Swedish semla: more than just a bun". Sweden.se. Retrieved February 22, 2011. 
  13. ^ a b c d e "New Orleans & Mardi Gras History Timeline " (event list), Mardi Gras Digest, 2005, webpage: MG-time.
  14. ^ a b "Timeline 18th Century:" (events), Timelines of History, 2007, webpage: TLine-1700-1724: on "1702-1711" of Mobile.
  15. ^ a b "Carnival/Mobile Mardi Gras Timeline". Museum of Mobile. Museum of Mobile. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Mardi Gras in Mobile" (history), Jeff Sessions, Senator, Library of Congress, 2006, webpage: LibCongress-2665.
  17. ^ "Mardi Gras" (history), Mobile Bay Convention & Visitors Bureau, 2007, webpage: MGmobile.
  18. ^ "Mardi Gras in Rural Acadiana". Retrieved February 18, 2010. 

References

See also

In 1723, the capital of Louisiana was moved to New Orleans, founded in 1718.[14] The first Mardi Gras parade held in New Orleans is recorded to have taken place in 1837. The tradition in New Orleans expanded to the point that it became synonymous with the city in popular perception, and embraced by residents of New Orleans beyond those of French or Catholic heritage. Mardi Gras celebrations are part of the basis of the slogan, Laissez les bons temps rouler, (Let the good times roll).[13] Other cities along the Gulf Coast with early French colonial heritage, from Pensacola, Florida; Galveston, Texas; to Lafayette, Louisiana, have active Mardi Gras celebrations in balls. In the rural Acadiana area, many Cajuns celebrate with the Courir de Mardi Gras, a tradition that dates to medieval celebrations in France.[18]

Knights of Revelry parade down Royal Street in Mobile during the 2010 Mardi Gras season.

[13] had been made capital of Louisiana. The French Mardi Gras customs had accompanied the colonists who settled there.Biloxi By 1720, [15].Boeuf Gras Society, was formed in Mobile in 1711, the krewe, or mystic society The first informal [17][16][15][13]

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