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Philosophy


Philosophy as a category is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek philosophia, which literally means "love of wisdom".

 
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The Asherah Code

By: John Mullikin

The Asherah Code is text produced following a Near Death Experience.

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Death is not "The End" Death is "Liberation"

By: AiR AtmanInRavi

Death is an illusion. In reality, there is no death. It is like a sunset. There is no sunset – it just appears to be. In fact, the Earth is rotating and the sun appears to set. In a few hours, there is a sunrise. But we know that it is an illusion! Read out more…

Death is an illusion. In reality, there is no death. It is like a sunset. There is no sunset – it just appears to be. In fact, the Earth is rotating and the sun appears to set. In a few hours, there is a sunrise. But we know that it is an illusion! Read out more…

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Logical and Epistemic Modality

By: Hasen Khudairi

This paper examines the interaction between the philosophy and psychology of concepts and the modal characterization of the deductive concept of logical validity. The concept of logical consequence on which I focus is model-theoretic, where the concept records the property of necessary truth-preservation from the premise of an argument to its conclusion, as well as the condition that, in the class of all possible worlds in which a premise is true, a consequent formula or...

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El libro de la verdad y de la vida

By: Antonio Pinto Renedo

Este libro representa una crítica constructiva a un mundo cada vez más decadente.

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Who is God? Where is God? What is God?

By: AiR AtmanInRavi

AiR - Atman in RVM or the Soul in Ravi V. Melwani is an embodied soul whose only mission in life is to realize God. He was born on October 15, 1966 in Bangalore, as Ravi V. Melwani. At a very young age, he mastered the craft of business and became a very successful businessman who revolutionized retailing in India with the stores Kids Kemp, Big Kids Kemp, and Kemp Fort. After making millions, he realized that life is not just about making money. He shut down his ...

AiR - Atman in RVM or the Soul in Ravi V. Melwani is an embodied soul whose only mission in life is to realize God. He was born on October 15, 1966 in Bangalore, as Ravi V. Melwani. At a very young age, he mastered the craft of business and became a very successful businessman who revolutionized retailing in India with the stores Kids Kemp, Big Kids Kemp, and Kemp Fort. After making millions, he realized that life is not just about making money. He shut down his ...

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Cosmic Drama

By: AiR AtmanInRavi; AiR AtmanInRavi

AiR - Atman in RVM or the Soul in Ravi V. Melwani is an embodied soul whose only mission in life is to realize God. He was born on October 15, 1966 in Bangalore, as Ravi V. Melwani. At a very young age, he mastered the craft of business and became a very successful businessman who revolutionized retailing in India with the stores Kids Kemp, Big Kids Kemp, and Kemp Fort. After making millions, he realized that life is not just about making money. He shut down his ...

AiR - Atman in RVM or the Soul in Ravi V. Melwani is an embodied soul whose only mission in life is to realize God. He was born on October 15, 1966 in Bangalore, as Ravi V. Melwani. At a very young age, he mastered the craft of business and became a very successful businessman who revolutionized retailing in India with the stores Kids Kemp, Big Kids Kemp, and Kemp Fort. After making millions, he realized that life is not just about making money. He shut down his ...

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My philosophical ideas 2

By: Antonio Pinto Renedo

This book represents a journey through the world through meditation

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वेदों का सर्व-युगजयी धर्म : वेदों की मूलभूत अवधारणा

By: डॉ. श्रीकान्त सिंह

जैसे पदार्थ एवं उर्जा को अलग-अलग अविनाशी एवं मात्र रूप बदलने वाला माना गया था परन्तु ये सापेक्षता (रिलेटिविटी) के सिद्धांत द्वारा सम्बद्ध कर दिए गए, उसी प्रकार अचेतन एवं चेतन को भी वेद-ज्ञान सम्बद्ध कर देता है । अर्थात् चेतन को अचेतन और अचेतन को चेतन में परिवर्तित किया जा सकता है । यह वेदों के प्रयोग से संभव है । जैसे पदार्थ को उर्जा में बदलने के लिए एक परमाणु बम में क्रांतिक मात्रा में रेडियो-एक्टिव पदार्थ चाहिए, वैसे ही अचेतन को चेतन में बदलने के लिए जो संरचनाएं चाहिए ...

जिनमें ‘इन्द्र’ को ऋषि अपने यज्ञ स्थल पर आराधना के ऋचाओं के द्वारा बुलाता है और कहता है कि हे 'इन्द्र’ आप मेरे यज्ञ में पधारिये आपका स्वागत और अभिनन्दन है। आपके लिए ‘सोमरस' हिमालय से लाई हुई सोम वल्लरी को पत्थरो से कूँच कर, निचोड़कर सोमरस को छन्ने से छानकर दुग्ध और शर्करा मिलाकर, आपके लिए यज्ञशाला में रखा गया है। इसी सोमरस को पीकर आप ने वृत्रासुर को मारा था और उसके द्वारा सरिताओं को पर्वतों से अवरूद्ध हुआ मार्ग खोला था। आप हमारे यज्ञ में पधारिए, हमारा कल्याण कीजिए। भौ...

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Algebraic Metaphysical Semantics

By: Hasen Khudairi

This paper argues that metaphysically fundamental truths ought to be defined within an algebraic language. In the first part of the paper, I provide examples of the algebraic structures used to define models of physical ontology (namely, quantum mechanics and field theory); the mathematical universe (set-theory); modal logic; and the metaphysics of consciousness. I outline, then, some explanatory desiderata concerning the relation between fundamental and derivative truth...

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A Modal Logic for Gödelian Intuition

By: Hasen Khudairi

This essay aims to provide a modal logic for rational intuition. Similarly to treatments of the property of knowledge in epistemic logic, I argue that rational intuition can be codified by a modal operator governed by the axioms of a dynamic provability logic, which embeds GL within the modal $\mu$-calculus. Via correspondence results between modal logic and first-order logic, a precise translation can then be provided between the notion of 'intuition-of', i.e., the cogn...

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Transcendental Ethics: Hyperintensional Foundations of Value Theory

By: Hasen Joseph Khudairi

This book concerns the modal and hyperintensional foundations of ethics. The book provides three metaphysical frameworks in which to examine the nature of ethical value, obligation, cognition, consciousness, and divinity. The first framework is an algebraic semantics, and provides support for the claim that truths about modality are metaphysically fundamental. The second framework is a multi-dimensional hyperintensional semantics, and is shown to provide a natural settin...

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Grothendieck Universes and Indefinite Extensibility

By: Hasen Khudairi

This essay endeavors to define the concept of indefinite extensibility in the setting of category theory. I argue that the generative property of indefinite extensibility in the category-theoretic setting is identifiable with the Kripke functors of modal coalgebraic automata, where the automata model Grothendieck Universes and the functors are further inter-definable with the elementary embeddings of large cardinal axioms. The Kripke functors definable in Grothendieck un...

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Nomic Necessitism

By: Hasen Khudairi

This paper aims to provide two abductive considerations adducing in favor of the thesis of Necessitism in modal ontology. I demonstrate how instances of the Barcan formula can be witnessed, when the modal operators are interpreted 'naturally' -- i.e., as including geometric and nomological possibilities -- and the quantifiers in the formula range over a domain of natural, or concrete, entities and their contingently non-concrete analogues. I argue that, because there are...

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Hyperintensional Property Theory

By: Hasen Khudairi

This paper provides three models of hyperintensional property theory. According to the first model, two properties can be identical while being relatively discernible, if the first property bears a non-symmetric relation to the second. I argue that the non-symmetry of identity is crucial for countenancing the relation between value-theoretic properties such as goodness and non-value-theoretic, natural properties. The non-symmetry of identity is argued to be crucial, as w...

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Conceivability, Plural Quantification, and Haecceitism

By: Hasen Khudairi

This essay aims to redress the contention that epistemic possibility cannot be a guide to the principles of modal metaphysics. I argue that the interaction between the multi-dimensional intensional framework and intensional plural quantification enables epistemic possibilities to target the haecceitistic properties of individuals. I outline the elements of plural logic, and I specify, then, a multi-dimensional intensional formula encoding the relation between the epistem...

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Moral Vagueness and Luminosity

By: Hasen Khudairi

This essay defends an epistemicist response to the phenomenon of vagueness concerning moral terms. I outline a traditional model of -- and then two novel approaches to -- epistemicism about moral predicates, and I demonstrate how the foregoing are able to provide robust explanations of the source of moral, as epistemic, indeterminacy. The first model of epistemic indeterminacy concerns the extensions of moral predicates, as witnessed by the non-transitivity of a value-th...

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Non-Transitive Self-Knowledge: Luminosity via Modal $\mu$-Automata

By: Hasen Khudairi

This essay provides a novel account of iterated epistemic states. The essay argues that states of epistemic determinacy might be secured by countenancing self-knowledge on the model of fixed points in monadic second-order modal logic, i.e. the modal $\mu$-calculus. Despite the epistemic indeterminacy witnessed by the invalidation of modal axiom 4 in the sorites paradox -- i.e. the KK principle: $\square$$\phi$ $\rightarrow$ $\square$$\square$$\phi$ -- an epistemic interp...

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Entanglement, Modality, and Indeterminacy

By: Hasen Khudairi

This paper aims to contribute to the metaphysical foundations of the Everett or `many-worlds' interpretation of quantum mechanics (cf. Everett, 1957; Wallace, 2012). I focus on the nature of the indeterminacy countenanced by states of entanglement, and argue that an account which clarifies the nature of the possible worlds at issue might serve to elucidate both the notion of metaphysical indeterminacy as well as the status of probability in the interpretation. I endeavor...

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Abstracta and Possibilia: Modal Foundations of Mathematical Platonism

By: Hasen Khudairi

This paper aims to provide modal foundations for mathematical platonism. I examine Hale and Wright's (2009) objections to the merits and need, in the defense of mathematical platonism and its epistemology, of the thesis of Necessitism. In response to Hale and Wright's objections to the role of epistemic and metaphysical modalities in providing justification for both the truth of abstraction principles and the success of mathematical predicate reference, I examine the Nec...

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