World Library  


Order
A Law Exhibit

Order
  • The Relations between the Laws of Babylo... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Introduction to Roman Law (by )
    Book Rating (29)
  • The Magna Carta (by )
    Book Rating (30)
  • Roman Law in the Modern World (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • The Chinese Their History and Culture (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Codex Hammurabi (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Napoleon's Notes on English History, Mad... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • The World's Religions : A Popular Accoun... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Confucianism (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • John King of England (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • The French Civil Code (As Amended up to ... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Order:  A Law Exhibit

Our many book collections feature the top 100 greatest books which showcase the formation of governments and their varied legal systems from around the world, throughout time.  Books from our Government and Law Collections are included, as are books from a Religion and Philosophy Collections - since these disciplines have played a significant role in the development of systems and governments.  The Magna Carta and Code Napoléon and Declaration of Independence are examples of the the timeless documents which remain more relevant as ever and continue to be referenced and analyzed as systems of cooperation between world citizens.
Ancient Law
Ancient Law
King Hammurabi of Babylonia codified the Codex Hammurabi.  Confucianism and Legalism were two influential philosophies that informed Chinese political order (The Chinese: Their History and Culture, Kenneth Scott Latourette).  Ancient Laws reveal an adherence to strict hierarchy to maintain political order.   There are other examples of “bottom-up law” that challenged “top down” power (The French Civil Code As Amended Up to 1906, Eric Blackwood Wright).  The Magna Carta is known as the initial step in the long historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law in England and beyond.  The French Civil Code was based out of the Code Napoléan, established under Napoléon I in 1804.   The book Napoleon’s Notes on English History, Made on the Eve of the French Revolution, documents Napoléan’s analysis of English history, which shaped his thinking during the time of the French Revolution.  Perhaps it was this analysis of the kingly past that informed Napoléan’s founding intentions of the French Civil Code ("Napoleonic Code," World Heritage Encyclopedia).  Laws are a set of written rules created by people, based on their philosophies of order and justice.   The “Order:  A Law Exhibit" travels through the lands of Euphrates Valley, China, England and France to demonstrate examples of laws based on philosophies of power.

King Hammurabi of Babylonia codified the Codex Hammurabi.  The Codex represented the rule of a king whose power was constantly contested ("Legal History,"  World Heritage Encyclopedia).  According to the Relations between the Laws of Babylonia and the Laws of the Hebrew Peoples, the Hammurabi Code was a way for the group in power to maintain their power.  The aristocrats would retaliate seeking blood for crime against them, while the commoner had to be satisfied with payment for crimes against them.  Hammurabi wanted to maintain the allegiance of conquering groups, rather than the conquered, to protect his own position of power (Relations between the Laws of Babylonia and the Laws of the Hebrew Peoples, Claude Hermann Walter Johns).

In The Chinese Their History and Culture, writer Kenneth Scott Latourette explains that Confucianism and Legalism were two influential philosophies that informed Chinese political order.  In support of this, author George Thomas Bettany wrote in  The World’s Religions:  A Popular Account of Religions Ancient and Modern, Including Those of Uncivilised Races, Chaldaeans, Greeks, Egyptians, Romans : Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Mohammedanism, And a Sketch of the History of Judaism and Christianity, legalism emphasized strict adherence to bureaucratic law administered by autocratic leadership because of the belief that people were inherently selfish and corrupt.  In contrast, Confucianism believed that social stratification was seen as a fact of life, and could be sustained by people who upheld ethical and moral values (
Confucianism, Anonymous).

Ancient Laws reveal an adherence to strict hierarchy to maintain political order. These were conceived in times and places where the fragility of order could unravel by the competition of multiple forces and ideologies.  Nevertheless, it was the rigid expressions of “top down” rule that would endure over long periods of time, especially as the memory of its order is still being recognized in the present day.

Laws of England
Laws of England
There are other examples of “bottom-up law” that challenged  “top down” power.  One example is "The Magna Carta" (which is Latin for "Great Charter") signed at Runnymede, on the banks of the River Thames, England (“Magna Carta,” World Heritage Encyclopedia).  King John gave barons places to live on his land in exchange for their military service.  But after King John’s defeat at the battle of the Bouvines, his barons felt exploited by his continuous orders and taxes.  In John King of England, John T. Appleby writes that King John would impose high taxes and charges, known as scutage, to “finance his administration and provide subsidies for military expeditions” (John King of England, John T. Appledy).  

On 15 June 1215, King John’s barons refused to pay the scutage “on the assertion that they were not bound to military service in a foreign war and hence were not liable to scutage in place of that service” (John King of England, John T. Appledy).  They allied with one another against King John, forcing him to sign the document, thus preventing him from confiscating their lands and inheritances (“Magna Carta” World Heritage Encyclopedia).  This document is known as the initial step in the long historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law in England and beyond. This reflected the transformation of law in England where one ruler could no longer have absolute power (The Magna Carta, Joshua Hutchinson).  Rather, law-making became a process of bottom-up power, or sharing power and decision making with others who also held considerable clout.
Laws of France
Laws of France
The French Civil Code was based out of the Code Napoléan, established under Napoléon I in 1804 (“Napoléonic Code," World Heritage Encyclopedia).  It brought together previous patchworks of French feudal laws into a single legal code, with a pan-European scope (“Napoléonic Code”). In the book, The French Civil Code As Amended Up to 1906, E. Blackwood Wright explains that although the French did draw from Roman Law, other sections were a result of compromise between provincial laws of the French North and South (The French Civil Code As Amended Up to 1906, Eric Blackwood Wright). 

The book Napoléon’s Notes on English History, Made on the Eve of the French Revolution documents Napoléan’s analysis of English history, which shaped his thinking during the time of the French Revolution.  He wrote that revolutions are largely psychological:  “A man is only a man. His methods are nothing if his environment and public opinion do not support him.  Opinion rules everything.  Do you think it was [Martin] Luther who led the Protestant Reformation? No, it was public opinion roused against Popes....” (Napoléon’s Notes on English History, Made on the Eve of the French Revolution, Napoléon Bonaparte).  

Perhaps it was this analysis of the kingly past that informed Napoléan’s founding intentions of the French Civil Code. As a “bottom-up” form of codified power, this legal structure is considered more rational, without religious content, and written in the vernacular.  The revolution was a time when kings were seen as tyrants and treasonists as patriots, thus, Napoléan created the code to be accessible to the French public opinion so that they could check the interpretation of law, rather than be dictated by the laws of monarchs  (The French Civil Code As Amended Up to 1906, Eric Blackwood Wright).  

Works Cited
Anonymous. Confucianism.  World Public Library, 2010. 

Appledy, John T.  John King of England.  London:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1959. 

Bettany, George Thomas.  The World’s Religions:  A Popular Account of Religions Ancient and Modern, Including Those of Uncivilised Races, Chaldaeans, Greeks, Egyptians, Romans : Confucianism, Taoism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Mohammedanism, And a Sketch of the History of Judaism and Christianity.  London:  Ward and Lock, 1890. 

Bonaparte, Napoléon.  Napoleon’s Notes on English History, Made on the Eve of the French Revolution.  London:  J.M. Dent, 1905. 

"Code of Hammurabi."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Confucianism."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

Hammurabi, King.  Codex Hammurabi.  (n.p.)  1772 B.C.

Hutchinson, Joshua.  The Magna Carta.  Blackmask.  Blackmask Online, 2000. 

Johns, Claude Hermann Walter.  Relations between the Laws of Babylonia and the Laws of the Hebrew Peoples.  London: Oxford University Press, 1914. 

Latourette, Kenneth Scott.  The Chinese: Their History and Culture.  London:  The Macmillian Company, 1943.

"Legalism."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Legal History."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Magna Carta."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Napoléonic Code."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Protestant Reformation, The."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Scutage."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"United States Declaration of Independence."  James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington et al., July 4, 1776.

Wright, Eric Blackwood.  The French Civil Code (As Ammended Up to 1906).  London:  Stevens and Sons, Ltd., 1908. 

Law Collections
The “Order:  A Law Exhibit" showcases information about governments and their laws from around the world. We can see how different laws, such as the Codex of Hammurabi, and Confucianism and Legalism prescribed certain rules toward the population. But then we see how subjects of government began to limit the power of government leaders through laws such as the Magna Carta and the Code Napoléon.  These stories help us to understand how power is initially deployed and the way it shifts and changes hands throughout history via systems of law.  Discover more law-related books and texts in these collections:

Click To View

Top 100 books on Law


  • Sacred Text : Common Sense, Volume I (by )
    Book Rating (30)
  • The Foreign Relation of China: A History... (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Bartleby the Scrivener (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • On Liberty (by )
    Book Rating (60)
  • Conflict of Laws; Or, Private Internatio... (by )
    Book Rating (118)
  • The Federalist Papers (by )
    Book Rating (45)
  • Americans in Eastern Asia; A Critical St... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Meditations (by )
    Book Rating (18)
  • Your Right to Federal Records Questions ... 
    Book Rating (175)
  • The Republic, Score Plato Rep (by )
    Book Rating (45)
  • Laws, Decisions, And Regulations Affecti... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Trial and Death of Socrates (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The spirit of the laws; Volume: 11 (by )
  • Introduction to Roman Law (by )
    Book Rating (29)
  • Crime and Punishment (by )
    Book Rating (30)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

Top 100 books on Government


  • The Histories of Polybius. Translated fr... (by )
    Book Rating (175)
  • Of the Conduct of the Understanding (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • The General History of England, Both Ecc... (by )
    Book Rating (118)
  • An Essay on the History of Civil Society (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Declaration of Independence and Lett... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Code of Hammurabi (by )
    Book Rating (118)
  • Communist Manifesto, The (by )
    Book Rating (30)
  • Vindication of the Rights of Woman (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Leviathan (by )
    Book Rating (30)
  • Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Grea... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Select Orations of Marcus Tullius Cicero (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Constitutional Documents of the Puri... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Commonwealth of Oceana (by )
    Book Rating (175)
  • The Constitutional History of the United... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Prince, The (Version 2) (by )
    Book Rating (45)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

Top 100 books on Sociology


  • The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of C... (by )
    Book Rating (45)
  • Aphrodisiacs and Anti-Aphrodisiacs : Thr... (by )
    Book Rating (20)
  • Domesday Studies, Being the Papers Read ... Volume 2 (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonapar... (by )
    Book Rating (30)
  • The American Journal of Sociology (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Six Thousand Country Churches (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • A History of Social Thought (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • The Growth of Thought as Affecting the P... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • The Elementary Forms of the Religious Li... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • The Theory of the Leisure Class (by )
    Book Rating (75)
  • The Social System (by )
    Book Rating (30)
  • Civic Education : Sociological Foundatio... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Business Statistics (by )
    Book Rating (45)
  • Catastrophe and Social Change, Based Upo... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

History


  • The Mississippi Territorial Archives, 17... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Rasputin and the Russian Revolution (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Chart of Famous Characters, And Salient ... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Doubts Concerning the Battle of Bunker H... (by )
  • Idiers of the Revolution, War of 1812 an... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Three plays for puritans (by )
  • Travels Amongst American Indians, Their ... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • While Europe waits for peace; describing... (by )
  • Out to Win, The Story of America in Fran... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Hon. Wilcher, Photograph Number 00142V (by )
  • Collections Historical and Archaeologica... Volume Vol. 11 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Birds of Indiana : A Descriptive Cat... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Roosevelt Back from Vacation. Returning ... (by )
  • British Birds : 7, 1913-1914 Volume 7, 1913-1914 
    Book Rating (175)
  • The tissues and their structure, a descr... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

Law


  • Annual Report - State Board of Health, S... Volume: 1961 (by )
  • Biennial Report of the Montana State Boa... Volume Year 1958-60 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Report of the Geological Survey of North... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • United States Court of Appeals for the N... Volume: 2982 (by )
  • Department of State (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Lichens of the State of Washington 
    Book Rating (3)
  • 13Th Census, 1910 [microform] : Populati... Volume: Reel 1029 - 1910 New York Federal Population Census Schedules - New York (ED's 762-791) County. (by )
  • New York in the War of the Rebellion, 18... (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • GOV.USCOURTS.NCEB.258032 : Donald Ray Bu... 
  • Christian Education : 1921 ; March No. 6... Volume Vol. 4 (by )
  • Out of Doors for Women Volume: 2 no. 19 
  • The Chaplet, Or de Corona (by )
    Book Rating (155)
  • On the Jewish Meats 
    Book Rating (132)
  • Six Centuries of Work and Wages the Hist... (by )
    Book Rating (118)
  • President Bush Is Committed to Building ... (by )
    Book Rating (118)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

Government Library Collection


  • Report to Congress in Accordance with 35... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Population and Housing Profile: Waukegan... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Statement of disbursements of the House;... Volume Series: Apr-Jun 1997, Part: 1 (by )
  • Concepts and Approaches for Mars Explora... Volume Report-Number: LPI-Contrib-1079 (by )
  • Gov.Uscourts.Ilnd.250465 
  • Gov.Uscourts.Caed.68204 
  • Gov.Uscourts.Canb.167658 
  • Gov.Uscourts.Casd.263665 
  • Bain Photograph Collections : Byron ; Ph... (by )
  • James G. Hill Architect, Photograph Numb... (by )
  • Cabinet of American Illustrations : the ... (by )
  • Mr and Mrs Howard Crowder and Daughter o... (by )
  • Kataoka Nizaemon, Photograph 02072V (by )
  • Cotton State Solons Present Demands for ... (by )
  • Social Security Legislation Has Proved i... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

Government Printing Office


  • Constitution of the United States (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • National Institutes of Health (Nih) Fede... (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Federal Funds Provided by the U. S. Depa... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Historical Tables (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Epscor Research Infrastructure Improveme... (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Federal Funds Provided by the U. S. Depa... (by )
    Book Rating (175)
  • Senate Select Committee on Intelligence ... (by )
    Book Rating (155)
  • State Prevention System (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Investigation of the Challenger Accident (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Reallocation of Amounts Previously Appro... (by )
    Book Rating (155)
  • Early Precursors of Gang Membership : A ... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Amounts Made Available by the President ... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • William L. Boesch, Jr., Selected as Gpo ... (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Illinois (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Ovc Fact Sheet Special Projects Division (by )
    Book Rating (155)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

Law Library Collection


  • Hand-Held Metal Detectors for Use in Con... (by )
    Book Rating (15)
  • Youth, Firearms and Violence in Atlanta ... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Military Law Review (by )
    Book Rating (175)
  • Childhood Victimization and Risk for Alc... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Pretrial Release of Felony Defendants, 1... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Profile of State Prisoners under Age 18,... (by )
    Book Rating (175)
  • Drugs, Incarceration and Neighborhood Li... (by )
    Book Rating (200)
  • Justice in Indian Country : A Process Ev... (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Explaining Police Activities Across Urba... (by )
    Book Rating (8)
  • Racial harassment in Vermont public scho... (by )
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy (by )
    Book Rating (118)
  • National Evaluation of Weed and Seed (by )
    Book Rating (132)
  • Illinois Appellate Court Unpublished Opi... Volume: Ill. App.v.249 (by )
  • Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws Pro... (by )
    Book Rating (175)
  • Indiana Law Review Volume: v. 44, no. 1 (2010) 
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

NATO Review Journal Collection


  • Nato Review; Issue 1 and 2; Spring/Summe... Volume Issue 1 & 2; Spring/Summer 2000 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 3; Autumn 2002 Volume Issue 3; Autumn 2002 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 3; Autumn 1999 Volume Issue 3; Autumn 1999 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 1; Spring 2003 Volume Issue 1; Spring 2003 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 1; Spring 2002 Volume Issue 1; Spring 2002 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 3; Autumn 2001 Volume Issue 3; Autumn 2001 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 1; Spring 2001 Volume Issue 1; Spring 2001 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 2; Summer 2001 Volume Issue 2; Summer 2001 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 2; Summer 2003 Volume Issue 2; Summer 2003 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 4; Winter 2003 Volume Issue 4; WInter 2003 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 1; Spring 1999 Volume Issue 1; Spring 1999 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 2; Summer 1998 Volume Issue 2; Summer 1998 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 1; Spring 1998 Volume Issue 1; Spring 1998 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 2; Summer 2002 Volume Issue 2; Summer 2002 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • Nato Review; Issue 3; Autumn 2003 Volume Issue 3; Autumn 2003 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

Click To View

The Army Lawyer Magazine Collection


  • The Army Lawyer : February 1988 ; Da Pam... Volume February 1988 ; DA PAM 27-50-182 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : December 1977 ; Da Pam... Volume December 1977 ; DA PAM 27-50-60 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : April 2010 ; Da Pam 27... Volume April 2010 ; DA PAM 27-50-443 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : December 2002 ; Da Pam... Volume December 2002 ; DA PAM 27-50-358 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : May 1999 ; Da Pam 27-5... Volume May 1999 ; DA PAM 27-50-316 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : March 2009 ; Da Pam 27... Volume March 2009 ; DA PAM 27-50-430 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : April 1981 ; Da Pam 27... Volume April 1981 ; DA PAM 27-50-100 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : April 1993 ; Da Pam 27... Volume April 1993 ; DA PAM 27-50-244 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : July-August 2003 ; Da ... Volume July-August 2003 ; DA PAM 27-50-363 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : September 1987 ; Da Pa... Volume September 1987 ; DA PAM 27-50-177 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : August 2001 ; Da Pam 2... Volume August 2001 ; DA PAM 27-50-345 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : June 2006 ; Da Pam 27-... Volume June 2006 ; DA PAM 27-50-397 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : February 1987 ; Da Pam... Volume February 1987 ; DA PAM 27-50-170 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : October 1999 ; Da Pam ... Volume October 1999 ; DA PAM 27-50-321 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
  • The Army Lawyer : February 1992 ; Da Pam... Volume February 1992 ; DA PAM 27-50-230 (by )
    Book Rating (3)
Scroll Left
Scroll Right



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.