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Organizing Relationships
A Sociology Exhibit

Organizing Relationships
  • The Theory of the Leisure Class (by )
  • The social principles of Jesus (by )
  • Omaha Sociology (by )
  • A Story of the Red Cross : Glimpses of F... (by )
  • A Far Country (by )
  • Wanted, A Young Woman to Do Housework, B... (by )
  • A Theology for the Social Gospel (by )
  • Manifesto of the Communist Party (by )
  • The Principles of Sociology : Volume 1 (by )
  • An Account of the War Customs of the Osa... (by )
  • Sex: Avoided Subjects Discussed in Plain... (by )
  • The Structure of Social Action; A Study ... (by )
  • What the Mother of a Deaf Child Ought to... (by )
  • The Biology, Physiology and Sociology of... (by )
  • Pure Sociology : A Treatise on the Origi... (by )
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Organizing Relationships:  A Sociology Exhibit

Many disciplines beyond Sociology, such as Mathematics and Psychology and Economics, are utilized in the Social Sciences.  In our Collections under these and other topics, contain hundreds of titles by writers and theorists who have dedicated to their lives to the study of human society.  Featured books in the following collections include Herbert Spencer, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Talcott Parsons and David Emile Durkheim.
Sociology of Past Power Structures
Sociology of Past Power Structures
Throughout history, all sub-disciplines of Sociology, as well and religious and government groups have been studied and experimented with different methods of social organization of population.  Sometimes, these attempts at social definitions and control have been tempered, but at other times, rigid – some men have use groups for their own gain.  Ultimately, however, if social organization is to be implemented, it has to be understood.  

From the beginning of time, both men and animals have used verbal and non-verbal cues and strategies to enforce hierarchy.  With chimpanzees, it is the Alpha Male.  With men:  Domesday Books, mathematics and accounting, psychology and linguistics.   The word “organization” is derived from the Greek word
organon, which means "organ."  Therefore, studies of how groups of people (with a common goal) structure themselves, is the study of mankind and its relationships as a collective.   

The Domesday Book, created under the reign of William the Conqueror, has been studied to understand the role of documentation in asserting authority and also to facilitate taxation.  According to Young Folks’ History of England, William the Conqueror was a Norman who conquered England.   In 1086, he ordered the documentation of land, livestock and taxes under the administration of the previous rulers, to find out what would be transferred over to Norman rule.  Whatever was recorded in the Domesday book could not be appealed. The data that William the Conqueror collected into the Domesday book revealed his tendency for control.  In the book titled, William the Conqueror, it is said that “William would not set...over any part of his dominions before his time, and it was his policy to keep his children dependent on him.  While he enriched his brothers, he did not give the smallest scrap of the spoils of England to his sons” (William the Conqueror, World Heritage Encyclopedia).  Robert, his son, was angry about this and fought his father in a battle, but later asked for his pardon.   Today, the Domesday Books is considered an artifact of sociological research. Domesday Studies, Being the Papers Read at the Meetings of the Domesday Commemoration 1886 examines how this document changed the course of history in the United Kingdom (
Domesday Studies, Being the Papers Read at the Meetings of the Domesday Commemoration 1886, Edward P. Dove).   

Debates in Defining Sociology
Debates in Defining Sociology
Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet was a 19th-Century Belgian mathematician, statistician and sociologist who introduced statistical methods into the social sciences.  He assigned variables to the complexity of social phenomena, in order to measure the statistical laws underlying crime, marriage or suicide rates.  Other scientists thought his ideas were controversial because it contradicted freedom of choice (“Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet,” World Heritage Encyclopedia).  

The author of Adolphe Quetelet, A Statistician discusses Auguste Comte as another researcher of social physics and sociology, but that Quetelet invented the method of investigation for “social physics” (Adolphe Quetelet as Statistician, Frank Hamilton Hawkins).  So Comte reinvented the term sociologie (sociology) to differentiate it from Quetelet’s collection of statistics (“Adolphe Quetelet,” World Heritage Encyclopedia).  Comte believed that there was an order of nature, not of man, which could be scientifically understood by unifying history, psychology and economics.  Social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, or using a broader philosophy that methodologically orders scientific observations (Outlines of Sociology, Lester Frank Ward).  In this book, Ward writes Comte’s use of the term “hierarchy” did not imply subordination.  “There is genetic affiliation without subordination.  The more complex and less exact sciences may be regarded as the children of the more simple and exact ones, but between parent and offspring there is no difference or rank.”  Additionally, he wrote that Comte “laid the foundations for understanding the more complex sciences by acquainting himself with the simpler ones upon which the other sciences successively rest” (Outlines of Sociology, Lester Frank Ward).  Other social scientists like Karl Marx also mixed scientific methods to measure social impacts of industrialization occurring in Europe, documented in his work Wage Labour and Capital ("Wage Labour and Capital," Karl Marx).  

Studying Social Life
Studying Social Life
David Émile Durkheim was a 19th century French sociologist who believed that sociology should study phenomena attributed to society at large, rather than being limited to the specific actions of individuals. Barbara Anne Mendheim however, applied sociology differently in The Sociology of Gender in a Kindergarten-First Grade Classroom.  She writes that people gain knowledge of the social world by identifying typicality and finding language to order their social experience. For example, girls understand that being a girl means being personally relevant and intimate with other people. Boys understand being a boy through being powerful and competent in the world (The Sociology of Gender in a Kindergarten-First Grade Classroom, Barbara Anne Mendheim).  However, in Woman: Her Charm and Power, Robert Downes uses sociological methods to explore how women in Egyptian and Iranian society were given opportunity for education and in leadership. But in Roman culture, women’s roles were to birth children.  Women’s positions in society are influenced by the dominant culture’s definition of their functions and role in society (Woman: Her Charm and Power, Robert Downes).  

Sociology has also been used to study group relations.  Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism discusses how entrepreneurs used religion to spread the system of capitalism.  By tapping into religious belief systems, he proffered, people could work toward their profit making motive.

Works Cited
"August Compte."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014. 

David Émile Durkheim.”  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014. 

"Domesday Book."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014. 

Dove, P. Edward.  "Domesday Studies, Being the Papers Read at the Meetings of the Domesday Commemoration 1886."  London:  Longmans, Green and Company, 1886.  

Downes, Robert.  Woman: Her Charm and Power.  London:  The Epworth Press, 1900.

Hawkins, Frank Hamilton.  Adolphe Quetelet as Statistician.  New York:  Columbia University Press, 1877.

Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet.”  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014. 

Marx, Karl.  "Wage Labour and Capital."   Neue Rheinische Zeitung, April 1849.  Reproduced:  World Public Library, 2002.  Web.

Mendheim, Barbara Anne.  The Sociology of Gender in a Kindergarten-First Grade Classroom.  Diss. University of Florida, 1979.

Norman People.”  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

"Sociology."  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014.

Ward, Lester Frank.  Outlines of Sociology.  New York:  The MacMillan Company, 1921.

Weber, Max.  The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.  New York: Scribner, 1930

William the Conqueror.”  World Heritage Encyclopedia.  WorldLibrary.org.  Web.  2014. 

Yonge, Charlotte Mary.  Young Folks’ History of England.  Boston:  Estes and Lauriet, 1879.


Sociology Collections
"Organizing Relationships: A Sociology Exhibit" demonstrates how sociological methods have been used to study the configuration of power, through documentation, analysis of order, and social effects.  Sociology brings together different methods of thinking, to understand the complexity of society more accurately, and why we should always be vigilant of power.  

Learn more about how the discipline of sociology is used, in these collections:


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Top 100 books on Sociology


  • The Theory of the Leisure Class (by )
  • The social principles of Jesus (by )
  • Omaha Sociology (by )
  • A Story of the Red Cross : Glimpses of F... (by )
  • A Far Country (by )
  • Wanted, A Young Woman to Do Housework, B... (by )
  • A Theology for the Social Gospel (by )
  • Manifesto of the Communist Party (by )
  • The Principles of Sociology : Volume 1 (by )
  • An Account of the War Customs of the Osa... (by )
  • Sex: Avoided Subjects Discussed in Plain... (by )
  • The Structure of Social Action; A Study ... (by )
  • What the Mother of a Deaf Child Ought to... (by )
  • The Biology, Physiology and Sociology of... (by )
  • Pure Sociology : A Treatise on the Origi... (by )
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Top 100 books on Psychology


  • Psychopathology of Everyday Life (by )
  • Supreme Personality (by )
  • Problems of Mysticism and Its Symbolism (by )
  • The Psychology of Beauty (by )
  • Psychology from the Standpoint of a Beha... (by )
  • Habit (by )
  • The Misuse of Mind (by )
  • Pavlov and His School the Theory of Cond... (by )
  • Self Mastery through Conscious Autosugge... (by )
  • The Science of Human Nature; A Psycholog... (by )
  • Essays in Radical Empiricism (by )
  • Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory (by )
  • Fantasia of the Unconscious (by )
  • The Expression of Emotion in Man and Ani... (by )
  • Applied Psychology for Nurses (by )
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Top 100 books on Economics


  • The Decline of American Capitalism (by )
  • Anarchism and Other Essays (by )
  • Democracy in America, Vol. 1 (by )
  • The Accumulation of Capital (by )
  • Theory of Moral Sentiments, The (First E... (by )
  • The Abolition of Poverty (by )
  • The Causes of Poverty (by )
  • A synopsis of the first three books of J... (by )
  • The Way to Wealth; Or, Poor Richard Impr... (by )
  • Walden Or, Life in the Woods (by )
  • The Cry for Justice; An Anthology of the... (by )
  • Progress and Poverty; an Inquiry Into th... (by )
  • Mutual Aid (by )
  • A Contribution to the Critique of Politi... (by )
  • The Servile State (by )
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Philosophy


  • Proceedings of the American Philosophica... (by )
  • Miscellanies : Embracing Nature, Address... (by )
  • The Private Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, ... (by )
  • The National Portrait Gallery of Disting... (by )
  • The laws of Plato; the text ed. with int... (by )
  • Idealistic Beginnings in England (by )
  • TEDtalks Conference 2006 : Richard Baran... (by )
  • The Writing of History : An Introduction... (by )
  • Encantadas Or Enchanted Isles, The (by )
  • The People of the Abyss (by )
  • Proceedings of the American Philosophica... 
  • The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotel (by )
  • Revue Philosophique de la France et de L... 
  • Proceedings of the American Philosophica... (by )
  • Le Chateau des Carpathes (by )
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Top 100 books on Government


  • The Bolsheviki and World Peace (by )
  • The Letters of Junius 
  • The English Works of Thomas Hobbes of Ma... (by )
  • Why wars come; or, Forms of government a... (by )
  • Polybii Historiae (by )
  • Robert's Rules of Order Pocket Manual of... (by )
  • Prince, The (Version 2) (by )
  • Two Treatises of Civil Government (by )
  • The Declaration of Arbroath 
  • The Magna Carta (by )
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  • The Prince (by )
  • Virginia Declaration of Rights and Cardi... (by )
  • Between Past and Future : Six Exercises ... (by )
  • Institutes of Natural Law : Being the Su... Volume Vol. 1 (by )
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Top 100 books on Law


  • Human Rights (by )
  • The Usa Patriot Act: A Legal Analysis (by )
  • Translation of the Law of Criminal Proce... (by )
  • Advocate of Peace (1847-1884) : 1847 Vol... Volume Vol. 7 (by )
  • Sacred Text : the Age of Reason Volume IV (by )
  • The Simma Theologica Volume I (by )
  • Institutes of the Laws of England : Or a... Volume Vol. 6 (by )
  • Laws, Decisions, And Regulations Affecti... (by )
  • Bleak House (by )
  • Utilitarianism (by )
  • The Prince (by )
  • Wife of His Youth and Other Stories of t... (by )
  • The American's Guide: Comprising the Dec... 
  • Leviathan (by )
  • No Treason : The Constitution of No Auth... (by )
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Top 100 books on Politics


  • The Human Condition : Volume 5 (by )
  • Review of the management of our affairs ... (by )
  • Meditations (by )
  • The Declaration of Independence and Lett... (by )
  • The Trial and Death of Socrates (by )
  • Politics (by )
  • The Jungle (by )
  • Politics Aristotle (by )
  • The Elements of Law Natural and Politic (by )
  • Heart of Darkness (by )
  • Reflections on the Revolution in France (by )
  • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Dougl... (by )
  • The Jungle (by )
  • Les Misérables Volume: 1-2 (by )
  • Leviathan (by )
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Top 100 books on Anthropology


  • Criminal Sociology (by )
  • Essays and Studies Presented to William ... (by )
  • Cesare Lombroso, A Modern Man of Science (by )
  • Modern Theories of Criminality (by )
  • American Anthropologist : Vol. 06 Part 0... Volume Vol. 06 Part 01-02 (by )
  • Story of Man: from the First Human to Pr... (by )
  • The Study of Man: An Introduction (by )
  • On the Functions of the Brain and of Eac... (by )
  • American Anthropologist (by )
  • The Dolmens of Ireland, Their Distributi... Volume 3 (by )
  • Social Anthropology (by )
  • On the Functions of the Brain and of Eac... (by )
  • The Journal of Negro History ; Volume 1 (by )
  • Anthropology : An Introduction to the St... (by )
  • Ancient Art and Ritual (by )
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Top 100 books on Mathematics


  • Introduction to Euclidean geometry : Ide... Volume Geometry series (by )
  • L'Arithmetiqve De Simon Stevin De Brvges (by )
  • An Investigation of the Laws of Thought ... (by )
  • Elements of Algebra (by )
  • First-Year Mathematics for Secondary Sch... (by )
  • The Construction of the Wonderful Canon ... (by )
  • Alphabet of economic science (by )
  • The Doctrine of Chances : Or, A Method o... (by )
  • Logic, Deductive and Inductive (by )
  • Problems in Differential Calculus. Suppl... (by )
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  • An Introduction to Mathematics (by )
  • The Alphabet of Economic Science (by )
  • A Course of Pure Mathematics (by )
  • Cocker's Decimal Arithmetick : Wherein I... (by )
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Sociology


  • Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation : A ... (by )
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  • Ten Years of Democracy in Malawi : Are M... (by )
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  • Nomenclature and Synonymy of the North A... (by )
  • World Health Organization : Organisation... (by )
  • Gaseous Vocs Rapidly Modify Particulate ... (by )
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Statistics


  • All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product... (by )
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  • Groundwater Degradation and the Limits o... (by )
  • Volcanic So2 Fluxes Derived from Satelli... (by )
  • Statistical Register (by )
  • Florida (by )
  • A Look at Aerosol Formation Using Data M... (by )
  • Topography of Great Britain Or, British ... (by )
  • Early Maryland Poetry (by )
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Top 100 books on Economics


  • The Decline of American Capitalism (by )
  • Anarchism and Other Essays (by )
  • Democracy in America, Vol. 1 (by )
  • The Accumulation of Capital (by )
  • Theory of Moral Sentiments, The (First E... (by )
  • The Abolition of Poverty (by )
  • The Causes of Poverty (by )
  • A synopsis of the first three books of J... (by )
  • The Way to Wealth; Or, Poor Richard Impr... (by )
  • Walden Or, Life in the Woods (by )
  • The Cry for Justice; An Anthology of the... (by )
  • Progress and Poverty; an Inquiry Into th... (by )
  • Mutual Aid (by )
  • A Contribution to the Critique of Politi... (by )
  • The Servile State (by )
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