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Agadez

 

Agadez

Agadez
اغادیز
View of Agadez, from the mosque's minaret
View of Agadez, from the mosque's minaret
Agadez is located in Niger
Agadez
Agadez
Location of Agadez
Coordinates:
Country  Niger
Region Agadez Region
Department Tchirozerine Department
Commune Agadez
Sultanate 1449 CE
Government
 • Mayor Rhissa Feltou
Elevation 520 m (1,710 ft)
Population (2012 census)
 • Total 118,244
Official name Historic Centre of Agadez
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii
Designated 2013 (37th session)
Reference no. 1268
State Party Niger
Region Africa

Agadez, formerly spelled Agades,[1] is the largest city in central Niger, with a population of 88,569 (2005 census). It lies in the Sahara and is the capital of Aïr, one of the traditional TuaregBerber federations. The city is also the capital of the Agadez Region. As of 2011, the urban commune had a total population of 124,324 people.[2]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Culture and tourism 2
  • Airport 3
  • 2007 violence 4
  • Climate 5
  • References 6
  • Sources 7
  • External links 8

History

The city was founded before the fourteenth century and gradually became the most important Tuareg city, supplanting Assodé, by growing around trans-Saharan trade. The city still sees the arrival of caravans, bringing salt from Bilma.

In 1449, Agadez became a sultanate, while around 1500 it was conquered by the Songhai Empire. At this point, the city had a population of around 30,000 people and was a key passage for the medieval caravans trading between the West African cities of Kano (and as a result Hausa language is the traditional lingua franca between different ethnic groups in the city, especially in the area of trade, religion and administration) and Timbuktu and the North African oases of Ghat, Ghadames, and Tripoli, on the Mediterranean shore. Decline set in after the Moroccan invasion, and the population sank to less than 10,000. Agadez was the farthermost point of the Ottoman Empire in the African continent until the 19th century before being occupied by the French colonial empire.

The city was ruled by the French from 1900. A rebellion by Kaocen Ag Mohammed occurred in 1916, but was defeated by French forces. Later, Agadez became an important location in the Tuareg Rebellion of the 1990s.

Culture and tourism

Today, Agadez flourishes as a market town and as a centre for the transportation of the uranium mined in the surrounding area. Notable buildings in the city include the Agadez Grand Mosque, originally dating from 1515 but rebuilt in the same style in 1844, the Kaocen Palace (now a hotel) and the Agadez Sultan's Palace. The city is also known for its camel market and its silver and leatherwork.

Some popular local musicians have found recognition in the west, like Tuareg guitar player Bombino and his band Group Bombino, Group Inerane and others. Mdou Moctar's film, Akounak Teggdalit Taha Tazoughai, is set and filmed on location in Agadez.[3]

Airport

Agadez Airport was named after Mano Dayak, the Tuareg leader who is native to the region.

2007 violence

See: Second Tuareg Rebellion

As a result of the internally displaced people converged on the city as a result of the unrest.

Climate

Climate data for Agadez, Niger
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27.9
(82.2)
31.1
(88)
35.0
(95)
39.2
(102.6)
41.3
(106.3)
41.3
(106.3)
39.1
(102.4)
37.9
(100.2)
38.9
(102)
37.1
(98.8)
32.4
(90.3)
29.0
(84.2)
35.8
(96.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
22.5
(72.5)
26.7
(80.1)
31.2
(88.2)
33.7
(92.7)
33.8
(92.8)
32.1
(89.8)
31.0
(87.8)
31.7
(89.1)
29.4
(84.9)
24.3
(75.7)
21.0
(69.8)
28.1
(82.6)
Average low °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57)
18.3
(64.9)
23.1
(73.6)
26.0
(78.8)
26.4
(79.5)
25.1
(77.2)
24.2
(75.6)
24.5
(76.1)
21.7
(71.1)
16.2
(61.2)
12.8
(55)
20.3
(68.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.004)
2.0
(0.079)
5.5
(0.217)
10.4
(0.409)
35.2
(1.386)
49.7
(1.957)
8.2
(0.323)
0.3
(0.012)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
111.4
(4.386)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 297.6 280.0 294.5 288.0 297.6 270.0 288.3 285.2 285.0 306.9 303.0 294.5 3,490.6
Source: NOAA[4]

References

  1. ^ "Air" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. 1. 1911.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^

Sources

  • Aboubacar Adamou. "Agadez et sa région. Contribution à l'étude du Sahel et du Sahara nigériens", Études nigériennes, n°44, (1979), 358 p.
  • Julien Brachet. Migrations transsahariennes. Vers un désert cosmopolite et morcelé (Niger). Paris: Le Croquant, (2009), 324 p. ISBN 978-2-914968-65-2.
  • Louis Werner. Agadez, Sultanate of the Sahara. Saudi Aaramco World, January/February 2003. Volume 54, Number 1.
  • Samuel Decalo. Historical Dictionary of Niger. Scarecrow Press, London and New Jersey (1979). ISBN 0-8108-1229-0
  • Jolijn Geels. Niger. Bradt London and Globe Pequot New York (2006). ISBN 1-84162-152-8.
  • Berber Sultanate of Aïr worldstatesmen.org: Chronology of the Berber Sultanate of Aïr, based in Agadez.

External links

  • Agadez travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • (English) Audio interview with Agadez resident about life in Agadez. Great place
  • http://www.agadez.org Site covering Northern Niger. Photo Gallery by Michel Batlle "portraits de femmes touarègues"
  • interactive Map of the Agadez region.
  • http://www.agadez-niger.com/ Site covering Agadez and Touareg culture.
  • Agadez, the touareg capital of the nigerien region of Air

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