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List of Spanish words of Germanic origin

 

List of Spanish words of Germanic origin

This is a list of some Spanish words of Germanic origin.

The list includes words from Visigothic, Frankish, Langobardic, Middle Dutch, Middle High German, Middle Low German, Old English, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Swedish, English, and finally, words which come from Germanic with the specific source unknown.

Some of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other languages. Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Spanish words from a different language. Some words contain non-Germanic elements (see béisbol in the Middle English section). Any form with an asterisk (*) is unattested and therefore hypothetical.

Contents

  • Alphabetical list 1
    • A 1.1
    • B 1.2
    • C 1.3
    • D 1.4
    • E 1.5
    • F 1.6
    • G 1.7
    • H 1.8
    • I 1.9
    • J 1.10
    • K 1.11
    • L 1.12
    • M 1.13
    • N 1.14
    • O 1.15
    • P 1.16
    • Q 1.17
    • R 1.18
    • S 1.19
    • T 1.20
    • U 1.21
    • V 1.22
    • W 1.23
    • X 1.24
    • Y 1.25
    • Z 1.26
  • By origin 2
    • Franconian 2.1
      • Frankish 2.1.1
      • Old Dutch 2.1.2
      • Middle Dutch 2.1.3
      • Modern Dutch 2.1.4
    • Anglo-Frisian 2.2
      • Old English 2.2.1
      • Middle English 2.2.2
      • Modern English 2.2.3
    • Low German 2.3
      • Old Low German 2.3.1
      • Middle Low German 2.3.2
      • Modern Low German 2.3.3
    • High German 2.4
      • Old High German 2.4.1
      • Middle High German 2.4.2
      • Modern High German 2.4.3
    • North-Germanic 2.5
      • Old Norse 2.5.1
      • Old Swedish 2.5.2
    • Other 2.6
      • Langobardic 2.6.1
      • Visigothic 2.6.2
    • Germanic of unidentified origin 2.7
    • Latin words of Germanic origin 2.8
  • Names 3
    • Forenames 3.1
    • Surnames 3.2
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Alphabetical list

A

  • aguantar "to put up with" (< maybe It agguantare, from guanto "gauntlet" < Old Provençal < OFr guant < Frankish *want)
    aguante "patience, tolerance"

B

  • bala "bullet" (< Fr balle < MFr < Northern It balla < Lombardic balla, palla < PGmc *ballô, cf. Eng ball, Ger Ball)
    abalear "to shoot"
    balear "to shoot"
  • balcón "balcony" (< It balcone < OIt balcone "scaffold" < Lombardic *balko, *balkon- "beam" , PGmc *balkô "beam", cf. Eng balk)
  • banco "bench; bank" (OFr bank < Germanic *banki)
    banca "bench, seat"
  • banda "band, group" (< Fr bande < Old Provençal banda "regiment of troops" < WGmc *banda or maybe Gothic bandwō "flag, sign")
    bandada "flock of birds, group of animals"
    bandera "flag"
  • bando "edict, mandate" (< Fr ban < Frankish ban)
  • bando "faction, party, side" (< maybe Gothic bandwō "flag, sign")
    bandido "outlaw, bandit"
    bandolero "outlaw, bandit"
  • banquete "banquet" (< Fr banquet < It banchetto "light repast between meals", dim. of banco "bench" < Lombardic *bank, panch < PGmc *bankiz, cf. bench)
  • barón "baron" (< maybe Frankish *baro "free man")
  • bebé "baby" (< Fr bébé < maybe Eng baby)
  • bistec, bisté, biftec "steak" (< Eng beefsteak, from beef (< OFr buef "ox; beef", cf. Sp buey)+ steak (< ON steik, cf. Eng stick))
  • bigote "moustache" (< maybe German bei Gott, "by God")[1])
  • bisonte "bison" (< Latin bison, bisōntis, of Germanic origin, cf Dutch wisent)
  • blanco "white" (< Germanic *blank)
  • bloque "block" (< Fr bloc < Dutch blok)
    bloquear "to block"
  • bordar "to embroider" (< maybe Germanic *brŭzdan, cf English board, Dutch boord)
    bordado "embroidery"
  • borde "edge" (< Fr bord < Frankish bord "side of the ship")
    a bordo "on board"
  • botar "to bounce" (< Germanic *bōtan "to hit", cf Eng beat, Dutch boten)
    bote "bounce"
  • bote "boat" (< OEng bāt)
  • bramar "to roar, bellow" (< maybe Gothic *bramôn)
    bramido "roar, bellow"
  • brecha= "breach, opening"
  • brindis= "toast(with drinks)"
  • brida= "bridle"
  • brío= "spirit", "brio" (Celtic?)
  • brisa= "breeze" (Old Spanish briza from East Frisian brisen, to blow fresh and strong)
  • brocha= "broach"
  • brotar= "to sprout"
  • buganvill(i)a, bugambilia= "bougainvillea"
  • bulevar= "boulevard" (Middle Dutch "bolwerc", Dutch bolwerk, also from Dutch: English bulwark)
  • buque= "ship, vessel"
  • burgués= "bourgeoisie", "member of the middle class" (cf Dutch burg "fortified city", burger "civilian")
  • busca; buscar = "to search"

C

D

E

  • equipar "to equip"
  • eslabón

F

  • feudal "feudal"
  • filibustero "filibuster"
  • film "film"
  • filtro; filtrar "filter" (noun; verb)
  • flotar; flota; flotilla "float"
  • folclore "folklore" (from English folklore)
  • fornido "strong, robust"
  • fornir "provide"
  • forraje a type of vegetation
  • forrar "cover"
  • frambuesa "raspberry"
  • Franco "candid"
  • Franco "franc (currency)"
  • franqueo "postage"
  • frasco "bottle"
  • fresco "cool"
  • frotar "rub"
  • fútbol, futbol "association football, soccer"

G

  • gabardina "raincoat"
  • gaita "bagpipes" (especially Galician bagpipes)
  • gaje
  • galán
  • galante
  • galardón
  • galope
  • ganado
  • ganar = "win"
  • ganso; gansa
  • garaje = "garage"
  • garantía
  • garbo
  • gardenia
  • garrote
  • gavilán
  • grabar (to grab/to record)
  • gripe, gripa (flu)
  • gris (grey)
  • grosella
  • grupo (group)
  • guadaña
  • guagua (bus)
  • guante "glove" (< Cat guant< Frankish *want)
  • guantelete "gauntlet" (< Fr gantelet, dim. of gant "glove")
  • guarcanión
  • guarda "guard" (< Germanic *warda "a search with sight" < *wardôn "to pay attention")
    aguardar "to wait for"
    guardar "to save, guard"
    guardia "the act of guarding"
  • guarir "to cure; to subsist; to recover" (< Germanic *warjan)
    guarecer "to shelter, protect"
    guarida "den, shelter for animals; shelter"
  • guarnición
  • guerra=war
  • guerrilla
  • gueto
  • guía= "a guide"
  • guiar
  • guillotina
  • guión
  • guirnalda
  • guisa
  • guisar
  • guzman=last name= guts/man= goodman
  • gunthair

H

  • hacha
  • halar, jalar
  • hato
  • heraldo
  • hola

I

  • instalar

J

  • jabón (soap)
  • jardín (garden)

K

L

  • lápiz = "pencil
  • lastre
  • lata = can
  • líder "leader"
  • lieja = "liege"
  • lista
  • listón
  • lote
  • lotería = lottery, bingo

M

  • maleta = suitcase
  • Malta
  • maniquí
  • maquillaje
  • marcar
  • march
  • marchar
  • mariscal
  • marqués
  • marquesina
  • marta
  • mascota
  • masón
  • mástil

N

  • nórdico
  • Norman
  • norte

O

  • oeste= "west"
  • orgullo = pride

P

  • palco
  • papel Paper
  • paquete
  • placa

Q

  • queso, cheese, cfr. to German word Käse
  • quilla = "keel"

R

  • rachear = see rancho
  • rancho = "ranch" from French ranger, from Old French ranc, from Frankish *hring or some other Germanic source
  • raza= "race (lineage)" from Italian razza "race, lineage" from Langobard. raiza "line, race" (trans. from Latin 'linea sanguinis' "bloodline of descent"), akin to OHG reiza "line" [2]
  • raspar
  • rata
  • ratón = mouse
  • refrescar
  • reno
  • retaguardia
  • rico(a) = good
  • rifa
  • rifle
  • riqueza
  • robar = to rob
  • robo
  • rocín
  • rojo(a) = red
  • ron
  • ropa = clothes
  • rorcual
  • rueca
  • rufián
  • rumba
  • ruso (but see Etymology of Rus)

S

  • sacar
  • sajón = Saxon
  • sala = living room, room (in general)
  • salón = salon, room (in general)
  • saxofón (first element only)
  • sopa = soup (it comes from Sanskrit suppa)
  • sud- /sur=south
  • sueco
  • suizo

T

  • tacha
  • tachuela
  • taco
  • tacón = heel
  • talar
  • tampón
  • tapa "top"
  • tapar
  • tapia
  • tapón
  • tarjeta "card", cognate with English "target"
  • teta
  • teutón
  • toalla = towel
  • toldo
  • tope
  • torio
  • trampa
  • tregua
  • trepar
  • trombón = trombone
  • trompa
  • trompo
  • tropa
  • trotar
  • tungsteno
  • tupé

U

  • ufano

V

  • vagón "wagon"
  • valquiria
  • vals
  • vanadio
  • vandalismo "vandalism" (second element only)
  • varón
  • venda
  • vermut

W

  • wagneriano "Wagnerian"

X

Y

  • yate
  • yelmo = helmet
  • yodo

Z

By origin

Franconian

Old Frankish evolved to Old Dutch between 500-800 AD. Around 1200 AD Old Dutch evolved to Middle Dutch. Around the 16th century, Modern Dutch evolved out of Middle Dutch.

Frankish

  • aguantar= to endure, bear, resist: from Italian agguantare "to retain, take hold of" (originally "to detain with gauntlets"), from a- + guanto "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want (see guante below) + verbal suffix -are (suffix changed to -ar in Spanish).
  • alojar= to lodge, to house, to provide hospitality: from Catalan allotjar, from llotja from Old French loge, see lonja below.
  • borde= border, edge: from Old French bord "side of a ship, border, edge", from Frankish (*)bord "table", from Germanic (*)burd-.
  • bordar= to embroider: from Frankish (*)bruzdon (source of Old French brouder, brosder and French broder), from Germanic (*)bruzd- "point, needle", from the IE root (*)bhrs-dh-, from (*)bhrs-, from (*)bhar-, "point, nail."
  • bosque= forest, woods: from Catalan of Provençal of Old French bosc, from Germanic (*)busk- "brush, underbrush, thicket" (source of Old High German busc).
  • bosquejo= a sketch, outline, rough draft: from Spanish bosquejar "to sketch, to outline", probably from Catalan bosquejar from bosc, see bosque above.
  • destacar= to detach troops: from French détachar (influenced by Spanish atacar), from Old French destachier "to unattach", from des- "apart, away" + atachier, a variation of estachier, from estaca, from Frankish stakka, see estaca below in Germanic section.
  • destacar= to stand out, to emphasize: from Italian staccare "to separate", from Old French destacher, destachier, see destacar above.
  • estandarte= a military standard: from Old French estandart, probably from Frankish (*)standhard "standard that marks a meeting place", (implicit sense: "that which stands firmly"), from (*)standan "to stand", (from Germanic (*)standan, from the IE root (*)sta- "to stand" [1]) + (*)hard "hard, firm", see ardid below in Germanic section.
  • guante= glove, gauntlet: from Catalan guant "gauntlet", from Frankish (*)want "gauntlet." [2]
  • lonja= market, building where merchants and sellers gather: from regional Catalan llonja (Modern Catalan llotja), from ), from the IE root (*)bha- "to shine" (implicit sense "signal that shines").
  • bandera= banner: from Vulgar Latin (*)bandaria "banner", from Late Latin bandum "standard", from Germanic (*)bandwa, see banda= group below
  • bandido= bandit, gangster: from Italian bandito "bandit", from bandire "to band together", from Germanic '*banwan', see abandonar above
  • banquete= a banquet: rom Old French banquet, diminutive of banc "bench, long seat", of Germanic origin, of the same family as the Old High German banc, see banco= bench above in Old High German section.
  • bisonte== Bison bison: from Latin bisontem (accusative of bison) "wisent (Bison bonasus)", from Germanic (*)wisand-, wisunt- (Old High German wisant, wisunt).
  • blanco= white, white person, blank: from Vulgar Latin (*)blancus, from Germanic (*)blank- "to shine", from the IE root[22].
  • bloque= a block, a bloc: from French bloc, from Middle Dutch blok "trunk of a tree", from a Germanic source represented in the Old High German bloh.
  • bohemio= a bohemian, of Bohemia, vagabond, eccentric, Gitano, Gypsy: from bohemio/Bohemia (from the belief that the Gitanos came from Bohemia), from Latin bohemus, from Boihaemum, literally "place of the Boi/Boii (from Celtic, see bohemio here) + Latin -haemum "home", from Germanic (*)haima "home", from the IE root (*)koi-mo-, from (*)koi-, variant of (*)kei- "bed, couch; beloved, dear" [23].
  • bota= a boot: from or simply from the same source as French botte "boot", from Old French bote "boot", probably from the same source as Modern French pied bot "deformed foot" in which bot is from Germanic (*)būtaz, from the IE root (*)bhau- "to strike", see botar below.
  • botar= to throw, to bounce, to jump: from Old French boter, bouter "to open, to hit, to strike, to perforate", from Romance bottare "to strike, to push, to shove", from Germanic (*) buttan "to hit, to strike" from the IE root (*)bhau- [24]
  • bote+ a bounce: see botar above
  • botón= button: from Old French boton, bouton "button", from boter, bouter "to open, perforate", see botar above
  • boya= a buoy: probably from Old French boie, from Germanic, possibly from Old High German bouhhan, from Germanic (*)baukna- "signal", from the IE root (*)bha- "to shine" [25]
  • brasa= a coal, ember: from Old French brese "a coal" (Modern French braise), probably from Germanic (*)bres-, (*)bhres-, from the IE root (*)bhreu- [26]
  • dibujar= to draw, represent with lines: older Spanish meanings include "to represent, to paint, to sculpt, to do wood carving", probably from Old French deboissier "to sculpt in wood", from de- + bois "wood", from Germanic (*)busk-, see bosque above.
  • estaca= a stake: from Germanic (*)stak-, from the IE root (*)steg- "pale, post pointed stick" [27].
  • estribor= starboard side of a ship: from Old French estribord "starboard", (Modern French tribord), from a Germanic source (confer Old English stēorbord). From Germanic (*)stiurjō "to steer", + Germanic (*)'burd-, see borde above
  • grupo= group: rom Italian gruppo, from a Germanic word represented by Old High German kropf "beak."
  • guardar= to guard, watch over, keep, observe (a custom): from Germanic (*)wardōn "to look after, take care of", from the IE root (*)wor-to-, "to watch", from (*)wor-, (*)wer- "to see, watch, perceive" [28]
  • sala= a room: from Germanic sal- "room, house", from the IE root (*)sol- "hamlet, human settlement."
  • salón= main room of a house (see sala above) + -on, augmentive suffix.
  • trampa= a trap: possibly from Germanic, from the same derivation as trampolín (see below) and atrapar (see above).
  • trampolín= a trampoline: from Italian trampolino "trampoline" (implicit sense: game of agility on stilts), from trampoli, plural of a Germanic word (*)tramp- (such as German trampeln and Old High German trampen, both meaning "to tread, trample"), from the IE root (*)dreb-, from (*)der- "to run."
  • vanguardia= vanguard: from Old Spanish avanguardia, from Catalan avantguarda from avant "before, advance", (from Latin ab- + ante "before") + guarda "guard", from Germanic wardaz, see guardia above in Visigothic section.

Latin words of Germanic origin

  • bisonte (from L bisont-,bison from Gmc, akin to OHG wisant, aurochs)
  • feudal (from Latin feodum, feudum of Gmc origin, akin to OE feoh, cattle, property)
  • filtro; filtrar= "filter; to filter" from ML filtrum felt from Gmc, akin to OE felt, felt
  • instalar (from ML installare from stallum of Gmc origin, akin to OHG stal, stall)
  • jabon= "soap" from Latin sapon-, sapo, soap from Gmc

Names

See: Rodriguez

Forenames

  • Adalberto
  • Adela
  • Adelaida
  • Adelia
  • Adelina
  • Adelita
  • Adolfito
  • Adolfo
  • Alberto
  • Alfonso
  • Alfredo
  • Alicia
  • Alita
  • Alonso
  • Álvaro
  • Amalia
  • Amelia
  • América
  • Américo= Italian Amerigo from Visigothic Amalric from amal "labour, work" + ric "kingdom, rule, domain"
  • Anselma
  • Anselmo
  • Armando
  • Baldomero
  • Balduino
  • Baudelio
  • Bernardino
  • Bernardita
  • Bernardo
  • Berta
  • Blanca
  • Brunilda
  • Bruno
  • Carla
  • Carlito
  • Carlitos
  • Carlos
  • Carlota
  • Carolina
  • Claudomiro
  • Conrado
  • Cristóbal= from Latin Christopherus/Christophorus
  • Curro
  • Dalia
  • Eberardo
  • Edelmira
  • Edelmiro
  • Edgardo
  • Edmundo
  • Eduardo
  • Elodia
  • Eloísa
  • Elvira
  • Ema
  • Emelina
  • Enrique
  • Ernesta
  • Ernestina
  • Ernesto
  • Etelvina
  • Federico
  • Fernanda
  • Fernando
  • Fito
  • Fran
  • Francisca
  • Francisco
  • Geraldo
  • Gerardo
  • Gertrudis
  • Gervasio
  • Gilberto
  • Gisela
  • Godofredo
  • Gonzalo
  • Godino= of Visigothic origin, from Gaut 'Goth' or guþ 'god'.
  • Griselda
  • Guadalupe= from Arabic wadi "river or valley" + Latin lupus "wolf"
  • Gualterio
  • Guillermo
  • Guiomar
  • Gustavo
  • Herberto
  • Heriberto
  • Hermenegildo
  • Hernán
  • Hernando
  • Hilda
  • Hugo
  • Ida
  • Ildefonso
  • Imelda
  • Irma
  • Ivette
  • Jordán
  • Jordana
  • Lalo
  • Leonardo
  • Leopoldo
  • Lorena
  • Luis
  • Luisa
  • Luisina
  • Lupe
  • Lupita
  • Matilde
  • Nando
  • Nilda
  • Olegario
  • Olga
  • Olivia
  • Óscar
  • Osvaldo
  • Paca
  • Paco
  • Pancho
  • Paquita
  • Paquito
  • Roberto
  • Rodolfo
  • Rodrigo= from Germanic Hrodric/Hrēðrīc/Rørik/Hrœrekr (Roderick, Rodrick, Roderich; a compound of hrod 'renown' + ric 'power(ful)'), from the Proto-Germanic *Hrōþirīk(i)az; it was borne by the last of the Visigoth kings and is one of the most important Spanish personal names of Germanic origin.[[3]]
  • Rogelio
  • Ronaldo

Surnames

  • Álvarez= patronymic form of Álvaro
  • Enríquez= patronymic form of Enrique
  • Fernández= patronymic form of Fernando
  • García = patronymic form of Garces
  • Godínez= patronymic form of Godino
  • Gómez= patronymic form of Gome
  • González= patronymic form of Gonzalo
  • Guerrero= occupational name meaning warrior, from Germanic werra, modern German wirre (turmoil)
  • Gutiérrez= patronymic form of Gutierre
  • Guzmán= guts/man= goodman
  • Henríquez= patronymic form of Henrique
  • Hernández= patronymic form of Hernando
  • Rodríguez= patronymic form of Rodrigo
  • Ruiz= patronymic form of Ruy, variant of Rodrigo

See also

References

  • Diez, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der romanischen Sprachen, "Razza."
  • Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua española by Guido Gómez de Silva (ISBN 968-16-2812-8)
  • The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. [29]
  1. ^ http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsultaTIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=bigote
  2. ^
  3. ^ Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4
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