World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Alveolo-palatal consonant

Article Id: WHEBN0000539585
Reproduction Date:

Title: Alveolo-palatal consonant  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Place of articulation, Postalveolar consonant, Polish language, Polish alphabet, Coronal consonant
Collection: Alveolo-Palatal Consonants, Place of Articulation
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Alveolo-palatal consonant

Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative
Tongue shape

In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation. In the official IPA chart, alveolo-palatals would appear between the retroflex and palatal consonants but for "lack of space".[1] Ladefoged and Maddieson characterize the alveolo-palatals as palatalized postalveolars (palatalized palato-alveolars), articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate,[2] whereas Esling describes them as advanced palatals (pre-palatals), the furthest front of the dorsal consonants, articulated with the body of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge.[1] These descriptions are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue (see schematic at right). They are front enough that the fricatives and affricates are sibilants, the only sibilants among the dorsal consonants.

Contents

  • Sibilants 1
  • Stops, nasals and liquids 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4

Sibilants

The alveolo-palatal sibilants are often used in varieties of Chinese such as Mandarin, Hakka, and Wu, as well as other East Asian languages such as Japanese and Korean. Alveolo-palatal sibilants are also a feature of many Slavic languages, such as Polish, Russian, and Serbo-Croatian, and of Northwest Caucasian languages, such as Abkhaz and Ubykh. The alveolo-palatal consonants included in the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
ɕ Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant Mandarin 小 (xiǎo) [ɕiɑu˨˩˦] small
ʑ Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant Polish ołozi [ʑɔwɔ] herb
t͡ɕ Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate Serbo-Croatian aćku / аћку [kut͡ɕa] house
d͡ʑ Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate Japanese 地震 (jishin) [d͡ʑiɕĩɴ] earthquake

The letters ɕ and ʑ are essentially equivalent to  ʃʲ and ʒʲ. They are the sibilant homologues of the pre-palatal fricatives [ç̟] and [ʝ̟].

Stops, nasals and liquids

Symbols for alveolo-palatal stops (ȶ, ȡ), nasals (ȵ), and liquids (ȴ) are sometimes used in sinological circles (a circumflex accent is also sometimes seen), but these are not recognized by the IPA. They may actually be simple palatal or palatalized consonants, classified as alveolo-palatals because they pattern with the alveolo-palatal sibilants of the language rather than because they are actually alveolo-palatal in articulation. In standard IPA, they can be transcribed t̠ʲ d̠ʲ n̠ʲ l̠ʲ or c̟ ɟ̟ ɲ̟ ʎ̟. An alternative transcription for the voiced alveolo-palatal stop and nasal is ɟ˖ ɲ˖, but it is used only when ɟ̟ ɲ̟ don't display properly.

For example, the Polish nasal represented with the letter ń is a palatalized laminal alveolar nasal and thus often described as alveolo-palatal rather than palatal. The "palatal" consonants of Indigenous Australian languages are also often judged closer to alveolo-palatal in their articulation.

Extra-IPA
letter
IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
ȶ t̂ t̠ʲ, c̟ Voiceless alveolo-palatal stop Korean 티끌 tikkeul [t̠ʲʰiʔk͈ɯl] dust
ȡ d̂ d̠ʲ, ɟ̟ Voiced alveolo-palatal stop Korean 반디 bandi [b̥ɐnd̠ʲi] firefly
ȵ n̂ n̠ʲ, ɲ̟ Alveolo-palatal nasal Yi language nyi [n̠ʲi˧] sit
ȴ l̂ l̠ʲ, ʎ̟ Alveolo-palatal lateral Catalan llu [ˈul̠ʲ] eye

References

  1. ^ a b John Esling, 2010, "Phonetic Notation". In Hardcastle, Laver, & Gibbon, eds, The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences, p 693
  2. ^  

Further reading

  •  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.