World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh
ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్
State of India
Montage of Andhra Pradesh Clockwise from top left:  city view, ,  view,  (),  Tirumala temple (), Dolphin's Nose mountain and the  at Visakhapatnam.
Montage of Andhra Pradesh
Clockwise from top left: Vijayawada city view, Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam Port view, Godavari Arch Bridge (Rajahmundry), Tirumala temple (Tirupati), Dolphin's Nose mountain and the Bay of Bengal at Visakhapatnam.
Official logo of Andhra Pradesh
Nickname(s): Rice Bowl of India,
Egg bowl of Asia
Location of Andhra Pradesh (marked in red) in India
Location of Andhra Pradesh (marked in red) in India
Country India
Region South India
Established 1 October 1953 (1953-10-01) (first established)[1]
1 November 1956 (1956-11-01) (re-organised for 1st time).
2 June 2014 (2014-06-02) (re-organised for 2nd time)[2]
Capital city Hyderabad (De jure - 02 June 2024)
Amaravati (proposed)
Largest city Visakhapatnam
Districts 13
 • Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan
 • Chief Minister Nara Chandrababu Naidu (TDP)
 • Legislature Bicameral (175 + 58 seats)
 • Lok sabha constituencies 25
 • High Court High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad
 • Total 160,205 km2 (61,855 sq mi)
Area rank 8th
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 49,386,799
 • Rank 10th
 • Density 308/km2 (800/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Vehicle registration AP
Literacy rate 67.41
Official language Telugu
Coastline 972 kilometres (604 mi)
GSDP 5.2 lakh crore (US$79 billion)
GSDP per-capita 90517 (US$1,400)
Website AP State Portal

^† The Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states for a period of time not exceeding 10 years. A new capital is planned to be developed between Guntur and Vijaywada.

Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Emblem Poorna kumbham
Language Telugu
Song Maa Telugu Thalliki
Dance Kuchipudi
Animal Krishna jinka/blackbuck
Bird Paala pitta/Indian roller
Flower Neeti kaluva
Fruit Maamidi kaaya
Tree Vepa chettu/neem
River Godavari, Krishna, Penna and Tungabhadra
Sport Kabbaddi

Andhra Pradesh ()(   )is one of the 29 [5] The new river-front proposed capital in Guntur district is Amaravati, which is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA.[6] Economically, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh at today's prices stood at 2359.3 billion (US$36 billion) and the Gross State Domestic Product at the prices for the 2013 financial year were 4193.91 billion (US$63 billion). The average income of the state rose 62.6% from 25,959 (US$390) (2004–05) to 42,186 (US$640) (2012-13).[7]:64–65, 92

The state has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi), the second longest among all the states of India after Gujarat.[4] It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state.[8]

There are two regions in the state namely Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.[9] These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam is the largest city and a commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $26 billion followed by Vijayawada with a GDP of $3 billion as of 2010, and is expected to increase to $17 billion by 2025.[10][11] There are a total of 28 cities with a population of 100,000 and above in the state at the 2011 Census, while Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada are the two million-plus cities.

తెలుగు తల్లి - Telugu Thalli


  • History 1
    • Early history 1.1
      • Satavahana empire 1.1.1
      • Ikshvakus 1.1.2
      • Pallavas 1.1.3
      • Vishnukundins 1.1.4
      • Salankayanas 1.1.5
      • Chola Dynasty 1.1.6
      • Reddy Dynasty 1.1.7
      • Vijayanagara Empire 1.1.8
    • Modern history 1.2
    • Post independence 1.3
    • Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 1.4
  • Geography 2
    • Natural vegetation 2.1
  • Climate 3
  • Demographics 4
    • Religions 4.1
  • Administrative divisions 5
  • Government and politics 6
  • Culture 7
    • Arts, crafts and artifacts 7.1
    • Literature 7.2
    • Art forms and festivals 7.3
    • Cuisine 7.4
  • Economy 8
    • Agriculture 8.1
    • Industrial sector 8.2
    • Resources 8.3
  • Transportation 9
    • Roads 9.1
    • Railways 9.2
    • Airports 9.3
    • Sea ports 9.4
  • Tourism 10
  • Telugu cinema 11
  • Education and research 12
  • Sports 13
  • Newspapers and journals 14
  • See also 15
  • References 16
  • External links 17


The Andhras trace their history to the vedic age. Andhra was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE). According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig veda, Andhras left north India and settled in south India.[12][13][14]

The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE.[15][16]

Early history

Satavahana empire

The Early Satavahanas ruled Andhra. The puranas refer to Satavahanas as Andhra Bhrityas. The Puranas list 30 Andhra rulers. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well. Satavahanas made Amaravati as their capital.[17][18]

Simuka (c. 230–207 BCE) After becoming independent around 230 BCE, Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered the present-day Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh (including Malwa). He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207–189 BCE), who further extended his state to the present day Andhra Pradesh. Later, Simuka made Srikakulam his capital.[18]

Satakarni (c. 180–124 BCE)

Early Satakarni issue, MaharashtraVidarbha type.
Satavahana 1 BCE coin inscribed in Brahmi: "(Sataka)Nisa". British Museum

His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said to have ruled for 56 years. The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the fourth century BCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the third century BCE, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.[19]


Andhra Ikshvakus (Telugu ఇక్ష్వాకులు, Sanskrit इक्ष्वाकु ) were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras.[20][21] Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). It is a strong common belief among some historians that Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus, while some believe Andhra Ikshvakus seem to be a local tribe who adopted the title.[20][22]

Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.[20]


During third century AD, there was utter political and military confusion in the coastal Andhra due to the invasion of the Abhiras and their allies on the last Ikshvaku remnants and the rise of the Brihatphalayanas, the Anandagotras and the Salankayanas on the other. Simha Varma of the Manchikallu stone inscription establishes the independent rule of the Pallavas in parts of the Krishna valley of Andhra Pradesh.

During the reign of Maharaja Sivaskanda Varma of the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli, the early Pallavas became dominant power in the first quarter of the fourth century AD Sivaskanda Varma was the first great ruler of the early Pallavas. He extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the south Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices.

Most of the Pallava Prakrit and Sanskrit charters from the southern Andhra country intimately connects them with the history of southern Andhra. The influence of the Pallavas was still felt by Andhra till it was swept by the Western Chalukyan invasion led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the seventh century AD. The Pallavas were not a recognized political power before the 2nd century AD. Pallavas were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings.[23]


Since the fall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundins were the first great dynasty, which held sway way over the entire Andhra country including Kalinga and parts of Telangana and played an important and imperial role in the history of Deccan during the fifth and sixth century AD.[24]


The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital as Vengi, modern Pedavegi 12 km from Eluru in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India's from 300 to 440 AD. They were Brahmins and their name is derived from their symbol and gotra name, which stood for Nandi (the bull of Shiva).[25]

Chola Dynasty

The Chola dynasty ruled Andhra during the period of 1010–1200. The Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh.

Reddy Dynasty

The Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448 CE)[26][27][28] was established in present-day coastal Andhra Pradesh by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early fourteenth century. The region that was ruled by this dynasty spanned present day coastal andhra from Vishakapatnam in the north to Kanchipuram in the south. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from Warangal.[29] Today Reddys is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

Vijayanagara Empire

The Vijayanagara Empire was an empire originated South India, in the Deccan Plateau region in the early fourteenth century. It was established in 1336 by Harihara Raya I and his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty.[30][31][32] The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the thirteenth century.[33][34] It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 to the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India.[35] The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes and Niccolò Da Conti, and the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's power and wealth. The region of Rayalaseema in the present day Andhra Pradesh got its name from the rulers of this dynasty whose name generally ended with raya, meaning raya ruled region (seema).

The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The Vijayanagara emipre's time is considered as the golden era of South India in many aspects by historian be it prosperity, welfare, wealth, military might and nurturing of arts. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation. The empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor.[36]

Modern history

Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[37] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth century to the end of the seventeenth century.[38]

In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[39] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.In 1947 Vizianagaram was the largest Hindu Princely state in Andhra Pradesh.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.[40]

Post independence

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic differences and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu-speaking areas, i.e. Andhra State, was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.[41]

On the basis of a gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the Hyderabad State.[42] Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

In February 2014, the [5] The new state of Telangana came into existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of India.[43] The formation of a new state named Telangana from Andhra Pradesh is not considered an amendment to the Constitution of India per article 3 and 4 of that document.[44]


Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Topo Map
Map of Andhra Pradesh
Krishna River at Srisailam

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is bestowed with two mighty river systems of Krishna and Godavari. Its varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern Ghats and Nallamallas to the shores of Bay of Bengal supports varied ecotypes, rich diversity of flora and fauna. The state has two regions Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema.[45] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Kadapa Basin[46] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions. Lambasingi (or Lammasingi), a village in the Chintapalli Mandal of Visakhapatnam district is situated at 1000 meters above the sea level. It is the only place in South India which has snowfall and is also nicknamed as Kashmir of Andhra Pradesh. Throughout the year the temperature here ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.[47][48]

Natural vegetation

Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2.[49] The forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic provinces.[50] They are:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Plateau
  3. Eastern Highland
  4. East Coastal Plains

Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. These Ghats have rich biological diversity with a wide variety of plants, birds and lesser forms of animal life. The vegetation found in the state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak, Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc. The state possesses some rare and endemic plants like Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia, Psilotum nudum, etc.[50]

The diversity of fauna includes tigers, panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of river Godavari and Krishna support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as keystone species.[50]


The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.

July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from the southwest monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the northeast monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.[51]


As of 2011 Census of India, the state had a population of 49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi). The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with 34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410 inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384, constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are boys and 2,535,931 are girls. Visakhapatnam district has the largest urban population of 47.5% and Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and 5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.[4]

There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926 per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. West Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of 74.6% and Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.[3][52]

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[53] with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Krishna, West Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.


The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu.[54] The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu language as a Classical Language.[55] Other languages often spoken in the state include Tamil, Kannada and Odia.[56]


Religion in Andhra Pradesh[57]
Religion Percent
Others Christianity, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs

According to the 2011 census, the Andhra Pradesh state's population (before the state's bifurcation) was around 91.86% Hindu with a Muslim minority of 5.32% along with smaller numbers of Christians, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists.[57]


Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi Vemana, Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami, who was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste,[58] Satya Saibaba and many others. Andhra Pradesh has several Hindu shrines. Most important and richest of them is Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanams (TTD).

Rock-cut Buddha statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam

Buddhism spread to Andra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna River valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years."[59] The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[60]

The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana-buddhism, alongside with the Magadha-erea in northeastern India.[61][62] A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country."[63] According to Xing, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern India probably in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River."[64] The Prajñāpāramitā Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana Sutras.[65][66]

Administrative divisions

The state is divided into two regions viz., Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. It has a total of 13 districts, with nine in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema. These 13 districts are further divided into 49 revenue divisions and they are in turn divided into 664 mandals. Chittoor district has the most number of mandals with 66 and Srikakulam district has the least with 37. There are as many as 7 revenue divisions in East Godavari district and only 2 in Vizianagaram district.[4][67]

The districts in the state are Anantapur, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Kadapa, Krishna, Kurnool, Prakasam, Nellore, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and West Godavari.[68]

Government and politics

District Court, Guntur

Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state and legislative council of andhra pradesh is the upper house. with 58 members. In the Parliament of India, Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha.[69] There are a total of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state. East Godavari district has the most number of constituencies with 19 and Vizianagaram district has the least with 9 assembly seats.[70] Whereas, the legislative council of the state has 58 seats, which is one-third of total assembly seats.[71]

Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in the 1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India.[72][73]

In 1983, the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party.[74] The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.

N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004).[75] In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu.

In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent INC and its allies and Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became Chief Minister again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, former state finance minister, became the Chief Minister on 3 September 2009, who resigned on 24 November 2010 on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new Chief Minister, who was also the last Chief Minister of the united Andhra Pradesh. He resigned after the announcement of the state bifurcation. President's rule was imposed and the state assembly was dissolved.

In what would be the last elections held in the unified state, Telugu Desam Party got a mandate in their favor in the residuary (new)state. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of Telugu Desam Party became Chief Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.[76]


The early dynasties which ruled this region had their influence on the culture of the state. The state is rich in its culture in terms of religious worships, literature, dance, music, arts and architecture, spicy cuisine. Some of the notable cultural aspects include paintings of Bapu, Annamayya's songs, famous Kuchipudi dance of the state, the harvest festival Sankranti and many more fairs as well.

Arts, crafts and artifacts

Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada

The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.[77] Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilisation and"Srikalahasti" is famous for this art. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupati is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for wood toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys.

The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the archaeological museum at Amaravati[78] with features relics of nearby ancient sites, Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence,[79] and the Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada with large a good collection of artifacts.


Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu language.

Nannayya (c. eleventh century AD) was the earliest known poet and translator. He wrote the first treatise on Telugu grammar, called "Andhra Shabda Chintamani" in Sanskrit. There was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to that.[80] Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada.

Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed as Adhunika Sahityam (Modern literature). He is known as Gadya Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel, Satyavati Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana . The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[81]

Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma (second Nobel prize nominee in literature after Rabindranath Tagore), Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu who wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnayasuri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana are also notable writers.

Art forms and festivals

Kuchipudi, dance by Yamini Reddy

Dance :

Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various classical dance forms (Śastriya Nrutyam) such as Kuchipudi, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalapam, Veeranatyam and folk dances(Janapada Nrutyam) forms such as Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, and Chindu exists in Andhra Pradesh.

Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.[82] Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.

Balamuralikrishna during a concert in Kuwait on 29 March 2006


Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.[83]


Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story. Harikatha was originated in Andhra.[84] Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh even now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made Harikatha a special art form.

Burra katha:

Burra katha is a oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of Telangana and coastal Andhra Pradesh region. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a contemporary social issue.[85]


Ugadi is celebrated as the Telugu New Year. People listen to Panchanga recitals by Pundits on the day of Ugadi. This process is called as Panchanga Shravanam which is an important aspect of the festival. Makara Sankranti is also a famous harvest festival which is celebrated across the state. Just like in other parts of the country, many other festivals include – Dasara, Vinayaka Chaviti, Deepavali, Vasantotsavam, Maha Shivaratri, Attla Taddi etc. Muslim festivals include Bakrid, Ramadan and Christians celebrate Christmas and Easter.


A Vegetarian Andhra Meal served on important occasions

Cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is famous for the rich seasoning and lots of variety. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of dishes. Typical meal includes rice, pappu (dal), vegetable curry, relishes, pickles, chutneys and curd. A lot of spices are produced in the region and hence the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is considered spiciest of all. Tamarind and red chillies are the distinct flavor of local cuisine.

jonna (jowar), ragi roti with ragi sangati, usually served with spinach.

The coastal region of the state has abundant seafood supply. The variety of fish curry recipes are famous. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken are also the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes.[87]

Sweets made up of milk are widely eaten. Payasam is one of them made with milk, rice or vermicelli pudding served both warm and cold. Pootharekulu, bobbattlu, mamidi tandra, kaja, ariselu (rice based vada using jaggery) etc., are famous sweets.


Visakhapatnam is an important commercial hub of the state
seaport distance view
Visakhapatnam Skyline, overlooking seaport

Andhra Pradesh has a very diverse geography which led to a very diverse economy. As many as 9 of the 13 districts have sea coast along the Bay of Bengal, which has created manufacturing and export centric industry. The fertile river plains in the delta regions of major peninsular rivers of Godavari and Krishna are rich with agriculture-based industries and the mineral deposits found in the districts of Rayalaseema, Eastern Ghats and neighboring states has led to large-scale ore exports.

The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Andhra Pradesh was 2359.3 billion (US$36 billion) in 2012–13. The domestic product of agriculture sector accounts for 545.99 billion (US$8.2 billion) and Industrial sector for 507.45 billion (US$7.7 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more percentage of the GSDP with a total of 1305.87 billion (US$20 billion).[7] In the 2010 list by Forbes magazine, there were several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.[88]


Lush green farms in Konaseema, East Godavari

With an economy mainly based on agriculture and livestock, Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of India".[89][90] Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra, flow through the state and provide irrigation. Agriculture is the main occupation and 60 percent of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state.

Besides rice, farmers also grow wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet, coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton, chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular. There are many multi-state irrigation projects under development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.[91]

Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".[92][93]

Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp production[94] of India. The geographical location of the state allows marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported marine exports include Vannamei shrimp[95] and are expected to cross $1 billion in 2013-14.[96]

Industrial sector

Front of large round building, with street and trees in front
Tech Mahindra Development Centre, Visakhapatnam

The industrial sector of the state include some of the key sectors like Pharma, Automobile, Textiles etc. Sricity located in Nellore district is an integrated business city which is home to many renowned firms like PepsiCo, Isuzu Motors, Cadbury India, Kellogg's, Colgate-Palmolive, Kobelco etc.[97] The PepsiCo firm has its largest plant in India at Sri City.[98]

The state is also emerging in information technology and biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of the Visakhapatnam alone is at 14.45 billion (US$220 million) in 2012–13. The development of IT in Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada, Kakinada and Tirupati are also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–13, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS revenues were 1152.6 million (US$17 million) crore while Tirupati with 693 million (US$10 million) and Kakinada with 615.4 million (US$9.3 million).[99] Other include .


Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.[100]

Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay, gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatitic, feldspar, silica sand. It has about one third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and galaxy granite in the international market.[100]

Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totaling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in close proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.

Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas reserves in the Krishna Godavari Basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.[101]

Power plants

Srisailam Dam – Hydro Electric Power Source

There are both thermal and hydel power plants.

  • Andhra Pradesh Government Website
  • Department of Tourism

External links

  1. ^ Andhra State Act, 1953. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ a b c d
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^ G. Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 AD, P.G. Publishers, Guntur, p. 116
  20. ^ a b c
  21. ^
  22. ^ Ancient India, A History Textbook for Class XI, Ram Sharan Sharma, National Council of Educational Research and Training, India , pp. 212
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ The History of Andhras, Durga Prasad (
  30. ^ By James Mansel Longworth page 204
  31. ^ edited by J C morris page 261
  32. ^ By Om Gupta, page 428-429
  33. ^ Nilakanta Sastry (1955), p216
  34. ^ Kamath (2001), p160
  35. ^
  36. ^ Historians such as P. B. Desai (History of Vijayanagar Empire, 1936), Henry Heras (The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, 1927), B.A. Saletore (Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire, 1930), G.S. Gai (Archaeological Survey of India), William Coelho (The Hoysala Vamsa, 1955) and Kamath (Kamath 2001, pp. 157–160)
  37. ^ Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to the history of India, Chapter 2
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^ a b c
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ a b
  58. ^
  59. ^ Davidson, Ronald. Tibetan Renaissance. Columbia 2005, pp. 29.
  60. ^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, pg. 2.
  61. ^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, p.1
  62. ^ Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, p.108
  63. ^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 313
  64. ^ Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory. 2004. pp. 65–66
  65. ^ Williams, Paul. Buddhist Thought. Routledge, 2000, pages 131.
  66. ^ Williams, Paul. Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations 2nd edition. Routledge, 2009, pg. 47.
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^
  88. ^
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^
  92. ^
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^ a b
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^
  106. ^
  107. ^
  108. ^
  109. ^
  110. ^
  111. ^
  112. ^
  113. ^ a b c
  114. ^
  115. ^
  116. ^
  117. ^
  118. ^
  119. ^
  120. ^
  121. ^
  122. ^
  123. ^
  124. ^
  125. ^
  126. ^
  127. ^
  128. ^
  129. ^
  130. ^
  131. ^
  132. ^
  133. ^
  134. ^
  135. ^
  136. ^
  137. ^
  138. ^
  139. ^
  140. ^
  141. ^
  142. ^
  143. ^
  144. ^
  145. ^
  146. ^


See also

The electronic media with wide range of news channels and print media that cover many national newspapers enlightens the people of Andhra Pradesh with all important political, economic and social news of national as well as international importance. Some of the notable Telugu newspapers are Eenadu, Andhra Jyothy, Sakshi, Andhra Bhoomi, Vaartha etc. and English daily includes Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, The Hindu etc. For the purpose of business related news the print media has certain publishers namely The Economic Times, Business Line.[146]

Newspapers and journals

Other accomplished sports-persons include, A. Ramana Rao, Karnam Malleswari(Weight Lifting), Pullela Gopichand(Badminton), Chetan Anand (badminton),Kamineni Eswara Rao (Arjuna Award winner) etc. Grandmasters in Chess like, Humpy Koneru, Pendyala Harikrishna, Dronavalli Harika hail from the state.

One of the most popular sports in Andhra Pradesh is cricket. The ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam is the home to the Andhra Pradesh cricket team. These venues regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches. Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, M. S. K. Prasad, V.V.S. Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc.

The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in cricket, field hockey, association football, Olympic weightlifting, chess, water sports, tennis, badminton, table tennis, cycling, etc.[145] Sports like kho kho, kabaddi and volleyball are played mostly in Andhra Pradesh.

ACA-VDCA cricket stadium at Visakhapatnam


Government of India through Ministry of Human Resource Development, also announced National Institute of Technology, which is to be constructed in the West Godavari District of State of Andhra Pradesh and an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), IIIT,IISER in the Chittoor District.

Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh is a satellite launching station.[143] It is India's primary orbital launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.[144]

Space research organization

Research institutes have been set up by the central government in the state. Some of them include:



The Ministry of Human Resource Development has sanctioned the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) at Visakhapatnam and Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) at Tirupathi , both started functioning from the academic year 2015-16[123][124] The All India Institute of Medical Sciences is sanctioned by Government of India at Mangalagiri .The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh.[125] The higher education includes many colleges, universities and research institutes providing professional education in the fields of arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary sciences, with undergraduate and post graduation. K L University, GITAM, Vignan University are the Deemed Universities. Some of the major state funded universities include:

Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 91.01% (2014). According to the report of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (2011–12) and Statistical Abstract (2012–13), 3,745,340 children out of 3,805,791 (98.4%), were enrolled in Primary schools with a teacher/student ratio of 29.3%. 2,101,928 children out of 21,56,577 (97.5%), were enrolled in Upper Primary schools with a teacher/student ratio of 24.6%.[122] Apart from thousands of schools ranging from the pre-primary to the senior secondary ones, the state is home to a number of institutes, which impart higher education.

Acharya Nagarjuna University, Namburu, Guntur district

Education and research

In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry, has produced the largest number of films in India exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[119][120] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[121]

In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood Film Industry.[117] Prolific film producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most number of films produced by a person.[118]

Telugu cinema

Apart from these, the state is home to many pilgrim destinations. It has many temples and shrines, mosques, and churches. Some famous temples, mosques, Buddhist shrines and churches of religious importance which are often visited by many tourists include Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple in Visakhapatnam District, Dwaraka Tirumala in West Godavari District, Srisailam temple, Kanaka Durga Temple of Vijayawada, Kotappakonda in Narasaraopet, Srikalahasti temple,[115] Shahi jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda etc.,[116] and many more as well.

Religious destinations

The state has rich forests, diverse flora & fauna that provides ample scope for promoting ecotourism. The state has many Sanctuaries, National Parks, Zoological Parks such as Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park, Indira Gandhi Zoological Park etc. Atapaka Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary attracts many migratory birds.[114]


Araku Valley is the famous hill station in Visakhapatnam district with thick forests, coffee plantations and waterfalls. Horsley Hills is a summer hill resort in the Chittoor district, situated at an elevation of 1,265 metres (4,150 ft), has natural flora and fauna. Papi Hills in East Godavari district is famous for its scenic beauty of the location in the river Godavari with.[113]

Valleys and Hills

Borra Caves in the Ananthagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. Belum Caves in Kurnool district are the second largest natural caves of 3.229 km (2.006 mi) in length on the Indian subcontinent.[113]


The seacoast of the state extends along the Bay of Bengal from Srikakulam to Nellore district.[112] The coastline has many beaches, namely Ramakrishna, Rushikonda, Bheemli, Suryalanka, Krishnapatnam, Vodarevu beach, Uppada beaches etc.[113] The state tourism board APTDC promotes tourism in the state.


Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department, APTDC as the Koh-i-Noor of India.

Hindu Pilgrimage sites map of Andhra Pradesh (click on the image to enlarge)


Andhra Pradesh has one of the country's largest port at Visakhapatnam in terms of (cargo handling).[109] The other famous ports are Krishnapatnam Port (Nellore), Gangavaram Port and Kakinada Port. Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.[110] There are 14 notified non-major ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu etc.[111]

A view of Visakhapatnam Harbour

Sea ports

Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state with international connectivity. The state has five domestic airports, Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram, Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi, Tirupati Airport at Renigunta, Cuddapah Airport and a privately owned, public use airport at Puttaparthi. There are also 16 small air strips located in the state.[108]

Map of airports and airstrips of Andhra Pradesh


Waltair Railway Division under ECoR zone, is fourth largest revenue earning division in India.[107] Vijayawada railway station is the highest grosser in the SCR zone and one of busiest railway junctions in India.

Andhra Pradesh has a railway network of 5,046 km (3,135 mi) and have played a significant role in boosting the economy of the state alongside developing the industrial and the tourism sectors. One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in Eastern Ghats route that runs from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri.[106] Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under with Guntur, Vijayawada , Guntakal (South Central Railway zone and Waltair (East Coast Railway zone) divisions. This serves the north coastal districts.


The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public bus transport owned by the state government which runs thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in Vijayawada is one of the largest bus terminals in Asia.[105]

Roads in Andhra Pradesh consist of National Highways and state highways with district roads as well. NH 5, with a highway network of around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian Highway Network.

Varadhi bridge way to Vijayawada and Guntur
Garuda Plus bus service of the APSRTC


The state is well connected to other states through road and rail networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of airways and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest railway junctions at Vijayawada and one of the largest seaports at Visakhapatnam.


[104]. There are also non−conventional power generation plants contributing a small portion to the power generation in the state.MW, and the Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 3693.20 NTPC) of MW (2000 Simhadri Super Thermal Power Plant, APGENCO) are of MW (800 Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah Thermal Power Station), MW (1050 Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station), MW (1760 Dr Narla Tata Rao Thermal Power Station are situated in the state which includes MW with total capacity of 5610 Thermal power plants [103]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.