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Archaic period in North America

 

Archaic period in North America

Copper knife, spearpoints, awls, and spud, from the Late Archaic period, Wisconsin, 3000 BC-1000 BC

The Archaic period in North America is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.

Contents

  • Archaic stage 1
  • Archaic stage in North America 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5

Archaic stage

In the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages first proposed by Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips in 1958,[1] the Archaic stage or "Meso-Indian period"[2] was the second period of human occupation in the Americas, from around 8000 to 2000 BCE. As its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming, this date can vary "significantly across the Americas".

The Archaic period followed the Lithic stage and was superseded by the Formative stage.[3]

  1. The Lithic stage
  2. The Archaic stage
  3. The Formative stage
  4. The Classic stage
  5. The Post-Classic stage

The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts, seeds, and shellfish. Numerous local variations have been identified. The period has been subdivided by region and then time. For instance, the Archaic Southwest tradition is subdivided into the Dieguito-Pinto, Oshara, Cochise and Chihuahua cultures.[4]

Archaic stage in North America

Since the 1990s, secure dating of multiple Middle Archaic sites in northern Louisiana, Mississippi and Florida have challenged traditional models of development, as hunter-gatherer societies in the Watson Brake), with building continuing over a period of 500 years. Such early mound sites as Frenchman's Bend and Hedgepeth were of this time period; all were localized societies. Watson Brake is now considered the oldest mound complex in the Americas,[5] preceding that built at Poverty Point (both are in northern Louisiana) by nearly 2,000 years. More than 100 sites have been identified as associated with the regional Poverty Point culture of the Late Archaic period, and it was part of a regional trading network across the Southeast.

Across what is now the Pearl River. In some places, such as Horr's Island in Southwest Florida, resources were rich enough to support sizable mound-building communities year-round. Four shell and/or sand mounds on Horr's Island have been dated to between 4870 and 4270 Before Present (BP).[6][7]

Archaeological artefacts and sites dated at approximately 5,000 BP, provides evidence that the first residents of what is now the Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung National Historic Site of Canada were Archaic people. The site which is considered to be one of the "most significant centres of early habitation and ceremonial burial in Canada," is located on the north side Rainy River in Northwestern Ontario, Canada. It became part of a continent-wide trading network because of its strategic location at the centre of major North American waterways.[8] Their mounds remain visible today.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Willey, Gordon R. (1989). "Gordon Willey". In  
  2. ^ Gordon R. Willey and Philip Phillips (1957). Method and Theory in American Archaeology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-89888-9.
  3. ^ "Method and Theory in American Archaeology" (Digitised online by Questia Media).  
  4. ^ "Archaic Period, Southeast Archaeological Center". Archived from the original on 5 December 2004. Retrieved 2004-11-28. 
  5. ^ Joe W. Saunders*, Rolfe D. Mandel, Roger T. Saucier, E. Thurman Allen, C. T. Hallmark, Jay K. Johnson, Edwin H. Jackson, Charles M. Allen, Gary L. Stringer, Douglas S. Frink, James K. Feathers, Stephen Williams, Kristen J. Gremillion, Malcolm F. Vidrine, and Reca Jones, "A Mound Complex in Louisiana at 5400-5000 Years Before the Present", Science, 19 September 1997: Vol. 277 no. 5333, pp. 1796-1799, accessed 27 October 2011
  6. ^ Milanich:84-85, 90, 95
  7. ^ Russo, Michael. "Archaic Shell Rings of the Southeast U. S.". National Park Service. pp. 10, 27. Retrieved 10 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung", Parks Canada, Backgrounder, 26 September 2013, retrieved 13 January 2014 
  9. ^ "Kay-Nah-Chi-Wah-Nung National Historic Site of Canada: Statement of Significance", Parks Canada, Canada's Historic Places, 1998, retrieved 12 January 2014 

Further reading

  • Claassen, Cheryl (2010). Feasting with Shellfish in the Southern Ohio Valley: Archaic Sacred Sites and Rituals. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P.  
  • Milanich, Jerald T. (1994). Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville, Florida: The University Press of Florida.  
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