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Arleigh Burke-class destroyers

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Arleigh Burke-class destroyers

lead ship of her class, underway in the Mediterranean Sea in March 2003.
Class overview
Name: Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
Operators:  United States Navy
Preceded by: Template:Sclass- guided missile destroyer
Succeeded by: Template:Sclass- guided missile destroyer
Cost: US$1,843M (DDG 114–116, FY2011/12)[1]
Planned: 75[2]
Completed: 62
Active: 62
General characteristics
Type: Destroyer
Displacement:

Fully loaded:

  • Flight I: 8,315 t (8,184 long tons; 9,166 short tons)
  • Flight II: 8,400 t (8,300 long tons; 9,300 short tons)
  • Flight IIA: 9,200 t (9,100 long tons; 10,100 short tons)
  • Flight III: 9,800 t (9,600 long tons; 10,800 short tons)[3]
Length: 505 ft (154 m) (Flights I and II)
509 ft (155 m) (Flight IIA)
Beam: 66 ft (20 m)
Draft: 30.5 ft (9.3 m)
Installed power: 3x Allison AG9140 Generators (2500kW each, 440V)
Propulsion: 4 General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines each generating 27,000 shp (20,000 kW);
coupled to two shafts, each driving a five-bladed reversible controllable pitch propeller;
Total output: 108,000 shp (81,000 kW)
Speed: In excess of 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph)
Range: 4,400 nmi (8,100 km) at 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph)
Boats & landing
craft carried:
2 Rigid hull inflatable boats
Complement:
  • Flight I: 303 total[4]
  • Flight IIA: 23 officers, 300 enlisted[5]
Sensors and
processing systems:
Template:Plain list
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Template:Plain list
Armament:


Aircraft carried:
  • Flights I and II: None
  • Flight IIA onwards: up to two MH-60R Seahawk LAMPS III helicopters
  • Aviation facilities:
  • Flights I and II: Flight deck only, but LAMPS III electronics installed on landing deck for coordinated DDG-51/helo ASW operations
  • Flight IIA onwards: Flight deck and enclosed hangars for two MH-60R LAMPS III helicopters
  • The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers (DDGs) is the United States Navy's first class of destroyer built around the Aegis Combat System and the SPY-1D multi-function phased array radar. The class is named for Admiral Arleigh Burke, the most famous American destroyer officer of World War II, and later Chief of Naval Operations. The class leader, USS Arleigh Burke, was commissioned during Admiral Burke's lifetime.

    They were designed as multi-role destroyers[8] to fit the AAW (Anti-Aircraft Warfare) with their powerful Aegis radar and anti-aircraft missiles, ASW (Anti-submarine warfare), with their towed sonar array, anti-submarine rockets, and ASW helicopter, ASUW (Anti-surface warfare) with their Harpoon missile launcher, and strategic land strike using their Tomahawk missiles. Some versions of the class no longer have the towed sonar, or Harpoon missile launcher. Their hull and superstructure were designed to have a reduced radar cross section[9] The first ship of the class was commissioned on 4 July 1991. With the decommissioning of the last Template:Sclass-, Cushing, on 21 September 2005, the Arleigh Burke-class ships became the U.S. Navy's only active destroyers; the class has the longest production run for any postwar U.S. Navy surface combatant.[10] The Arleigh Burke class is planned to be the third most numerous class of destroyer to serve in the U.S. Navy, after the Template:Sclass- and Template:Sclass-es; besides the 62 vessels of this class (comprising 21 of Flight I, 7 of Flight II and 34 of Flight IIA) in service by 2013, up to a further 42 (of Flight III) have been envisaged.

    With an overall length of 505 feet (154 m) to 509 feet (155 m), displacement ranging from 8,315 to 9,200 tons, and weaponry including over 90 missiles, the Arleigh Burke-class ships are larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers.[11]

    Characteristics


    The Arleigh Burke class is among the largest destroyers built in the United States. Only the Template:Sclass- and Template:Sclass-es were longer (563 ft). The Burke class are multi-mission ships with a "combination of... an advanced anti-submarine warfare system, land attack cruise missiles, ship-to-ship missiles, and advanced anti-aircraft missiles,"[12] The larger Template:Sclass- ships were constructed on Spruance-class hullforms, but are designated as cruisers due to their radically different mission and weapons systems. The Burke class on the other hand were designed with a new, large, water-plane area-hull form characterized by a wide flaring which significantly improves sea-keeping ability. The hull form is designed to permit high speed in high sea states.[9]

    The Arleigh Burke's designers incorporated lessons learned from the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers; with the Arleigh Burke class, the U.S. Navy also returned to all-steel construction. An earlier generation had combined a steel hull with an innovative superstructure made of lighter aluminum to reduce topweight, but the lighter metal proved vulnerable to cracking. Aluminum is also less fire-resistant than steel.[13] A 1975 fire aboard USS Belknap gutted her aluminum superstructure.[14] Battle damage to Royal Navy ships exacerbated by their aluminum superstructures during the 1982 Falklands War supported the decision to use steel. Another lesson from the Falklands War[12] led the navy to protect the ship's vital spaces with double-spaced steel armor (creating a buffer for modern rockets), and kevlar spall liners.

    The Ticonderoga-class cruisers were deemed too expensive to continue building and too difficult to further upgrade. The angled rather than traditional vertical surfaces and the tripod mainmast of the Arleigh Burke design are stealth techniques,[15][16] which make the ship more difficult to detect, in particular by anti-ship missiles.

    A Collective Protection System makes the Arleigh Burke class the first U.S. warships designed with an air-filtration system against nuclear, biological and chemical warfare.[17]

    Their Aegis radar differs from a traditional rotating radar that mechanically rotates 360 degrees for each "sweep" scan of the airspace which allows continual tracking of targets.[9] The system's computer control also allows centralization of the previously separate tracking and targeting functions.[9] The system is also resistant to electronic counter-measures.[9] Their standalone Harpoon anti-ship missile launchers give them an anti-ship capability with a range in excess of 64 nm.[9] " The 5"/54 caliber Mark 45 gun, in conjunction with the Mark 34 Gun Weapon System, is an anti-ship weapon which can also be used for close-in air contacts or to support forces ashore with Naval Gun-Fire Support (NGF), with a range of up to 20 miles and capable of firing 20 rounds per minute."[9] The class' Sparrow missile provide point defense against missiles and aircraft while the Standard Missile provides area anti-aircraft defense, additionally the ship has an electronics warfare suite that provides passive detection and decoy countermeasures.[9]

    The class' Light airborne multipurpose system, or LAMPS helicopter system improves the ship's capabilities against submarines and surface ships, a helicopter able to serve as a platform to monitor submarines and surface ships, and launch torpedoes and missiles against them, as well as being able to support ground assaults with machine guns and Hellfire anti-armor guided missiles.[18] The helicopters also serve in a utility role, able to perform ship replenishment, search and rescue, medical evacuation, communications relay, and naval gunfire spotting and controlling.

    Arleigh Burke-class destroyers have many combat systems. Burkes have the Navy's latest anti-submarine combat system with active sonar, a towed sonar array, and anti-submarine rockets.[9] They support strategic land strikes with their VLS launched Tomahawks.[9] They are able to detect anti-ship mines at a range of 1400 yards.[19]

    So vital has the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMD) role of the class become that all ships of the class are being updated with BMD capability.[20][21] Burke production is being restarted in place of additional Template:Sclass-s.[22]

    Development

    In 1980, the U.S. Navy initiated design studies with seven contractors. By 1983 the number of competitors had been reduced to three: Bath Iron Works, Todd Shipyards and Ingalls Shipbuilding.[17] On 3 April 1985 Bath Iron Works received a US$321.9 million contract to build the first of class, USS Arleigh Burke.[23] Gibbs & Cox was awarded the contract to be the lead ship design agent.[24] The total cost of the first ship was put at US$1.1 billion, the other US$778 million being for the ship's weapons systems.[23] She was laid down by the Bath Iron Works at Bath, Maine, on 6 December 1988, and launched on 16 September 1989 by Mrs. Arleigh Burke. The Admiral himself was present at her commissioning ceremony on 4 July 1991, held on the waterfront in downtown Norfolk, Virginia.


    The "Flight IIA Arleigh Burke" ships have several new features, beginning with the USS Oscar Austin (DDG-79). Among the changes are the addition of two hangars for ASW helicopters, and a new, longer Mark 45 Mod 4 5-inch/62-caliber naval gun (fitted on USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81) and later ships). Later Flight IIA ships starting with USS Mustin (DDG-89) have a modified funnel design that buries the funnels within the superstructure as a signature-reduction measure. TACTAS towed array sonar was omitted from Flight IIA ships and they also lack Harpoon missile launchers. Ships from DDG-68 to DDG-84 have AN/SLQ-32 antennas that resemble V3 configuration similar to those deployed on Template:Sclass-s, while the remainder have V2 variants externally resembling those deployed on some Template:Sclass-s. V3 has an active electronic countermeasures component while V2 is passive only. A number of Flight IIA ships were constructed without a Phalanx CIWS because of the planned Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile, but later the Navy decided to retrofit all IIA ships to carry at least one Phalanx CIWS by 2013.[25]

    USS Pinckney, USS Momsen, USS Chung-Hoon, USS Nitze, USS James E. Williams and USS Bainbridge[26] have superstructure differences to accommodate the Remote Mine-hunting System (RMS). Mk 32 torpedo tubes were moved to the missile deck from amidships as well.

    Modernization

    The U.S. Navy has begun a modernization program for the Arleigh Burke class aimed at improving the gun systems on the ships in an effort to address congressional concerns over the retirement of the Template:Sclass-s. This modernization was to include an extension of the range of the 5-inch (127 mm) guns on the flight I Arleigh Burke-class destroyers (USS Arleigh Burke to USS Ross) with extended range guided munitions (ERGMs) that would have given the guns a range of 40 nautical miles (74 km).[27][28][29] However, the ERGM was cancelled in 2008.[30]

    The modernization program is designed to provide a comprehensive mid-life upgrade to ensure that the class remains effective. Reduced manning, increased mission effectiveness, and a reduced total cost including construction, maintenance, and operation are the goals of the modernization program. Modernization technologies will be integrated during new construction of DDG-111 and 112, then retrofitted into DDG flight I and II ships during in-service overhaul periods.[31] The first phase will update the hull, mechanical, and electrical systems while the second phase will introduce an open architecture computing environment (OACE). The result will be improved capability in both ballistic missile defense (BMD) and littoral combat.[32] By 2018 all Burkes homeported in the Western Pacific will have upgraded anti-submarine systems, including the new AN/SQR-20 Multifunction Towed Array.[33]

    The Navy is also upgrading the ships' ability to process data. Beginning with USS Spruance, the Navy is installing an internet protocol (IP) based data backbone, which enhances the ship's ability to handle video. Spruance is the first destroyer to be fitted with the Boeing Company's gigabit Ethernet data multiplex system (GEDMS).[34]

    In July 2010 BAE Systems announced that it had been awarded a contract to modernize 11 ships.[35]

    As of 2013, the Navy plans to conduct hybrid-electric propulsion tests to determine suitability for powering one of the ship's two propellers. This hybrid system, used on the USS Makin Island (LHD-8) and Template:Sclass-s, uses both diesel-electric propulsion and gas-turbine engines; the electric motors are capable of speeds of up to 12 knots, greater speeds necessitating use of the gas-turbine engine. If the Navy proceeds with installing hybrid propulsion, it is likely to be progressively retrofitted to existing ships as a part of their mid-life upgrades. The Navy is also studying a "stern flap" that would alter water flow around the hull and anti-corrosion paints may be applied to the hull for greater movement efficiency; both measures are aimed at reducing operational fuel consumption. New navigational software, the Smart Voyage Planning Software, is to be used to calculate water conditions and other environmental factors in order to maximize the efficiency of a vessel's route.[36]

    Production restarted and further development

    The class was scheduled to be replaced by Template:Sclass-s beginning in 2020,[37] but an increasing threat from both long- and short-range missiles caused the Navy to restart production of the Arleigh Burke-class and consider placing littoral combat mission modules on the new ships.[38][39]

    In April 2009 the Navy announced a plan that limited the Zumwalt-class to three units while ordering another three Arleigh Burke-class ships from both Bath Iron Works and Ingalls Shipbuilding.[22] In December 2009 Northrop Grumman received a $170.7 million letter contract for DDG-113 long-lead-time materials.[40] Shipbuilding contracts for DDG-113 to DDG-115 were awarded in mid-2011 for US$679.6m–$783.6m;[41] these do not include government-furnished equipment such as weapons and sensors which will take the average cost of the FY2011/12 ships to US$1,842.7m per vessel.[1] DDG-113 to DDG-115 will be "restart" ships, similar to previous Flight IIA ships, but including modernization features such as Open Architecture Computing Environment; DDG-116 to DDG-121 will be "Technology Insertion" ships with elements of Flight III, and Flight III proper will start with DDG-122.[42]

    Flight III ships, construction starting in FY2016 in place of the canceled CG(X) program, have various design improvements including radar antennas of mid-diameter increased to 14 feet (4.3 m) from the previous 12 feet (3.7 m).[43] These Air and Missile Defense Radars (AMDR) use digital beamforming, instead of the earlier Passive Electronically Scanned Array radars.[44]

    However, costs for the Flight III ships increased rapidly as expectations and requirements for the program have grown. In particular, this was due to the changing requirements needed to carry the proposed Air and Missile Defense Radar system required for the ships' ballistic missile defense role.[45] The Government Accountability Office found that the design of the Flight IIIs was based on "a significantly reduced threat environment from other Navy analyses" and that the new ships would be "at best marginally effective".[46]

    In spite of the production restart, the Navy is expected to fall short of its requirement for 94 missile-defense-capable destroyer and cruiser platforms starting in FY 2025 and continuing past the end of the 30-year planning window. While this is a new requirement as of 2011, and the United States Navy has never had so many large missile-armed surface combatants, the relative success of the Aegis ballistic missile defense system has shifted this national security requirement onto the Navy. The shortfall will arise as older platforms that have been refitted to be missile-defense-capable (particularly the cruisers) are retired in bulk before new destroyers are planned to be built.[47]

    The Navy is considering extending the acquisition of Arleigh Burke-class destroyers into the 2040s, according to revised procurement tables sent to Congress, which have the Navy procuring Flight IV ships from 2032 through 2041.[48]

    Operational history

    Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Cole was damaged on 12 October 2000 in Aden, Yemen while docked, by an attack in which an apparently shaped charge of 200–300 kg in a boat was placed against the hull and detonated by suicide bombers, killing 17 crew members. The ship was repaired, and returned to duty in 2001.

    In October 2011 it was announced that four Arleigh Burke-class destroyers would be forward-deployed in Europe to support the NATO missile defence system. The ships, to be based at Naval Station Rota, Spain, were named in February 2012, as Ross, Donald Cook, Porter and Carney.[49] By reducing travel times to station, this forward deployment will allow for six other destroyers to be shifted from the Atlantic in support of the Pivot to East Asia.[50]

    Contractors

    Ships in class

     Name   Number   Builder   Launched   Commissioned   Home port   Status 
    Flight I
    Arleigh Burke DDG-51 Bath Iron Works 16 September 1989 4 July 1991 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Barry DDG-52 Ingalls Shipbuilding 8 June 1991 12 December 1992 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    John Paul Jones DDG-53 Bath Iron Works 26 October 1991 18 December 1993 San Diego, California Active
    Curtis Wilbur DDG-54 Bath Iron Works 16 May 1992 19 March 1994 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Stout DDG-55 Ingalls Shipbuilding 16 October 1992 13 August 1994 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    John S. McCain DDG-56 Bath Iron Works 26 September 1992 2 July 1994 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Mitscher DDG-57 Ingalls Shipbuilding 7 May 1993 10 December 1994 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Laboon DDG-58 Bath Iron Works 20 February 1993 18 March 1995 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Russell DDG-59 Ingalls Shipbuilding 20 October 1993 20 May 1995 San Diego, California Active
    Paul Hamilton DDG-60 Bath Iron Works 24 July 1993 27 May 1995 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Ramage DDG-61 Ingalls Shipbuilding 11 February 1994 22 July 1995 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Fitzgerald DDG-62 Bath Iron Works 29 January 1994 14 October 1995 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Stethem DDG-63 Ingalls Shipbuilding 17 July 1994 21 October 1995 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Carney DDG-64 Bath Iron Works 23 July 1994 13 April 1996 Mayport, Florida Active
    Benfold DDG-65 Ingalls Shipbuilding 9 November 1994 30 March 1996 San Diego, California Active
    Gonzalez DDG-66 Bath Iron Works 18 February 1995 12 October 1996 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Cole DDG-67 Ingalls Shipbuilding 10 February 1995 8 June 1996 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    The Sullivans DDG-68 Bath Iron Works 12 August 1995 19 April 1997 Mayport, Florida Active
    Milius DDG-69 Ingalls Shipbuilding 1 August 1995 23 November 1996 San Diego, California Active
    Hopper DDG-70 Bath Iron Works 6 January 1996 6 September 1997 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Ross DDG-71 Ingalls Shipbuilding 22 March 1996 28 June 1997 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Flight II
    Mahan DDG-72 Bath Iron Works 29 June 1996 2 February 1998 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Decatur DDG-73 Bath Iron Works 10 November 1996 29 August 1998 San Diego, California Active
    McFaul DDG-74 Ingalls Shipbuilding 18 January 1997 25 April 1998 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Donald Cook DDG-75 Bath Iron Works 3 May 1997 4 December 1998 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Higgins DDG-76 Bath Iron Works 4 October 1997 24 April 1999 San Diego, California Active
    O'Kane DDG-77 Bath Iron Works 28 March 1998 23 October 1999 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Porter DDG-78 Ingalls Shipbuilding 12 November 1997 20 March 1999 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Flight IIA: 5"/54 variant
    Oscar Austin DDG-79 Bath Iron Works 7 November 1998 19 August 2000 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Roosevelt DDG-80 Ingalls Shipbuilding 10 January 1999 14 October 2000 Mayport, Florida Active
    Flight IIA: 5"/62 variant
    Winston S. Churchill DDG-81 Bath Iron Works 17 April 1999 10 March 2001 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Lassen DDG-82 Ingalls Shipbuilding 16 October 1999 21 April 2001 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Howard DDG-83 Bath Iron Works 20 November 1999 20 October 2001 San Diego, California Active
    Bulkeley DDG-84 Ingalls Shipbuilding 21 June 2000 8 December 2001 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Flight IIA: 5"/62, one 20mm CIWS variant[25]
    McCampbell DDG-85 Bath Iron Works 2 July 2000 17 August 2002 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Shoup DDG-86 Ingalls Shipbuilding 22 November 2000 22 June 2002 Everett, Washington Active
    Mason DDG-87 Bath Iron Works 23 June 2001 12 April 2003 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Preble DDG-88 Ingalls Shipbuilding 1 June 2001 9 November 2002 San Diego, California Active
    Mustin DDG-89 Ingalls Shipbuilding 12 December 2001 26 July 2003 Yokosuka, Japan Active
    Chafee DDG-90 Bath Iron Works 2 November 2002 18 October 2003 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Pinckney DDG-91 Ingalls Shipbuilding 26 June 2002 29 May 2004 San Diego, California Active
    Momsen DDG-92 Bath Iron Works 19 July 2003 28 August 2004 Everett, Washington Active
    Chung-Hoon DDG-93 Ingalls Shipbuilding 15 December 2002 18 September 2004 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Nitze DDG-94 Bath Iron Works 3 April 2004 5 March 2005 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    James E. Williams DDG-95 Ingalls Shipbuilding 25 June 2003 11 December 2004 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Bainbridge DDG-96 Bath Iron Works 13 November 2004 12 November 2005 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Halsey DDG-97 Ingalls Shipbuilding 9 January 2004 30 July 2005 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Forrest Sherman DDG-98 Ingalls Shipbuilding 2 October 2004 28 January 2006 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Farragut DDG-99 Bath Iron Works 23 July 2005 10 June 2006 Mayport, Florida Active
    Kidd DDG-100 Ingalls Shipbuilding 22 January 2005 9 June 2007 San Diego, California Active
    Gridley DDG-101 Bath Iron Works 28 December 2005 10 February 2007 San Diego, California Active
    Sampson DDG-102 Bath Iron Works 16 September 2006 3 November 2007 San Diego, California Active
    Truxtun DDG-103 Ingalls Shipbuilding 2 June 2007 25 April 2009 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Sterett DDG-104 Bath Iron Works 19 May 2007 9 August 2008 San Diego, California Active
    Dewey DDG-105 Ingalls Shipbuilding 26 January 2008 6 March 2010 San Diego, California Active
    Stockdale DDG-106 Bath Iron Works 10 May 2008 18 April 2009 San Diego, California Active
    Gravely DDG-107 Ingalls Shipbuilding 30 March 2009 20 November 2010 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    Wayne E. Meyer DDG-108 Bath Iron Works 18 October 2008 10 October 2009 San Diego, California Active
    Jason Dunham DDG-109 Bath Iron Works 1 August 2009 13 November 2010 Norfolk, Virginia Active
    William P. Lawrence DDG-110 Ingalls Shipbuilding 15 December 2009 4 June 2011 San Diego, California Active
    Spruance DDG-111 Bath Iron Works 6 June 2010 1 October 2011 San Diego, California Active
    Michael Murphy DDG-112 Bath Iron Works 7 May 2011 6 October 2012 Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Active
    Flight IIA: Restart
    John Finn DDG-113 Ingalls Shipbuilding Construction on contract[51]
    Ralph Johnson DDG-114 Ingalls Shipbuilding Construction on contract[52]
    Rafael Peralta DDG-115 Bath Iron Works Construction on contract[53]
    Flight IIA: Technology Insertion
    Thomas Hudner DDG-116 Bath Iron Works Construction on contract
    Paul Ignatius DDG-117 Ingalls Shipbuilding Contract awarded
    Daniel Inouye DDG-118 Bath Iron Works Contract awarded
    ' DDG-119 Ingalls Shipbuilding Hull contract awarded
    ' DDG-120 Hull contract awarded
    ' DDG-121 Hull contract awarded
    ' DDG-122 Hull contract awarded
    Flight III
    ' DDG-123 Hull contract awarded
    ' DDG-124 Hull contract awarded
    ' DDG-125 Hull contract awarded

    USS Michael Murphy was originally intended to be the last of the Arleigh Burke class. However with reduction of the Template:Sclass- production, the Navy requested new DDG-51-class ships.[54] Long-lead materials contracts were awarded to Northrop Grumman in December 2009 for DDG-113 and in April 2010 for DDG-114.[55] General Dynamics received a long-lead materials contract for DDG-115 in February 2010.[56][57] It is anticipated that in FY2012 or FY2013, the Navy will commence detailed work for a Flight III design and request 24 ships to be built from 2016 to 2031.[58] In May 2013, a total of 77 Burke-class ships was planned.[59] The Flight III variant is in the design phase as of 2013. In June 2013, the US Navy awarded $6.2 billion in destroyer contracts.[60] Up to 42 Flight III ships are expected to be procured by the Navy with the first ship entering service in 2023.[61]

    Foreign interest

    In May 2011 Saudi Arabia received a price estimate for the purchase of Arleigh Burke-class destroyers.[62]

    Gallery

    See also

    Notes

    References

    • Baker, A.D. The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 1998–1999. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1998. ISBN 1-55750-111-4.
    • Gardiner, Robert and Chumbley, Stephen. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1995. ISBN 1-55750-132-7.

    Further reading

    External links

    • Destroyer History Foundation
    • unit list on globalsecurity.org
    • Arleigh Burke class (Aegis) page on naval-technology.com

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