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Barbareño language


Barbareño language

Native to California
Region Santa Barbara, Santa Ynez
Extinct 1965, with the death of Mary Yee[1]
  • Southern
    • Central
      • Barbareño
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
boi – Barbareño
inz – Ineseño
Glottolog barb1263  (Barbareno)[2]
ines1240  (Ineseno)[3]

Barbareño is one of the extinct Chumashan languages, a group of Native American languages, which was spoken in the area of Santa Barbara, California. The closely related Ineseño may have been a dialect of the same language. Barbareño became extinct in 1965 with the death of Mary Yee.[1]


  • Language revitalization 1
  • Phonology 2
    • Consonants 2.1
    • Vowels 2.2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Language revitalization

As of 2013, the Barbareno Chumash Council is engaged in ongoing efforts to revive the language. Two of its members are language apprentices and teachers.[4][5] Wishtoyo Chumash Village, in Malibu, California, announced the opening of its Šmuwič Language School in 2010.[6][7]

The Ineseño community now call their language Samala. In 2008 Richard Applegate compiled a grammar and dictionary of Ineseño based on Harrington's work in the early 1900s with one of the last fluent speakers, Maria Solares.[8] Applegate and Nakia Zavalla, Cultural Director for the Santa Ynez Band of Chumash and a descendant of Solares, have begun an effort to revitalize the language. Applegate began teaching Ineseño in 2003, and Zavalla has started an immersion-based language apprentice program.[9] As of 2008, Applegate had five students, though none had reached fluency.[10]



Barbareño consonant phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar/
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal plain m n
glottalized ˀm ˀn
Plosive plain p t k q ʔ
Affricate plain t͡s t͡ʃ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ
aspirated t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ
Fricative plain s ʃ x h
ejective ʃʼ
aspirated ʃʰ
Approximant plain l j w
glottalized ˀl ˀj ˀw


Barbareño vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Open e a o


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  • Applegate, Richard. (1972). Ineseño Chumash Grammar. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley).
  • Beeler, M. S. 1976. Barbareno Chumash: a farrago. In Langdon, Margaret and Silver, Shirley, eds. Hokan Studies: Papers from the 1st Conference on Hokan Languages held in San Diego, California April 23–25, 1970, pp. 251–270. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Wash, Suzanne. (1995). Productive Reduplication in Barbareño Chumash. (Master's thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara; 210 + x pp.)
  • Wash, Suzanne. (2001). Adverbial Clauses in Barbareño Chumash Narrative Discourse. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara; 569 + xxii pp.)

External links

  • Barbareño language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
  • Chumash Barbareño, Smithsonian Archives
  • Barbareño Chumash Names for the Body
  • Samala Chumash Language Tutorial
  • OLAC resources in and about the Barbareño language
  • OLAC resources in and about the Ineseño language
  • Ineseño basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database

 This article incorporates public domain material from the National Park Service document "Bringing Back the Samala Chumash Language".

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