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Battle of Halule

Battle of Halule
Date 691 BC
Location Babylonia
Result Battle was indecisive,
generally agreed that Assyrians suffered the greatest losses.
Belligerents
Babylonians
Chaldeans
Aramaeans
Babylonia
Elamites
Zagros tribes
Persians
Assyria
Commanders and leaders
Mushezib-Marduk
Humban-nimena
Khumban-umena III
Sennacherib

The Battle of Halule took place in 691 BC between the Assyrian empire and the rebelling forces of the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Persians, Medes, Elamites and Aramaic tribes.[1][2]

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Rebellion forces 2
  • Result 3
  • References 4

Background

During the reign of King Sennacherib of Assyria, Babylonia was in a constant state of revolt. Mushezib-Marduk the Chaldean prince chosen as King of Babylon led the Babylonian populace in revolt against Assyria and King Sennacherib.

Rebellion forces

Acheamenes recruited a new army to help the Babylonians against the Assyrians, under the leadership of Mushezib-Marduk. As well as the Babylonians, the Aramaic tribes, the Chaldeans and King Khumban-umena III of the Elamites, and all the Zagros Iranians (Persia, Anzan, Ellipi, etc.) joined in rebellion against the Assyrians. The nucleus of the army consisted of Elamite, Median and Persian charioteers, infantry, and cavalrymen.[1]

Result

Sennacherib during his Babylonian war

The battle was indecisive, or at least both sides claimed the victory in their annals and all rulers remained on their thrones.[3]

Mushezib-Marduk lost his ally when the Elamite king Humban-nimena suffered a stroke later that same year, an opportunity King Sennacherib quickly seized by attacking Babylon, and eventually capturing it after a nine-month siege. Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib. The Persians and Medes were then subjugated. There was further fighting between Elam and Assyria over the next 40 years until Elam was destroyed by Ashurbanipal.

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chaldeans-kaldu-west-semitic-tribes
  2. ^ http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/l_elam_et_les_elamites.asp
  3. ^ The Encyclopedia of World History

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