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Battle of the Saintes

Battle of the Saintes
Part of the American War of Independence

The Battle of the Saintes, 12 April 1782: surrender of the Ville de Paris by Thomas Whitcombe, painted 1783, shows Hood's HMS Barfleur, centre, attacking the French flagship Ville de Paris, right.
Date 9 April 1782 – 12 April 1782
Location Off Dominica, West Indies
Result Decisive British victory[1][2]
Belligerents
 Great Britain  France
Commanders and leaders
Sir George Rodney
Sir Samuel Hood
Comte de Grasse   (POW)
Louis de Bougainville
Strength
36 ships of the line 33 ships of the line
Casualties and losses
243 dead,
816 wounded[2]
4 ships of the line captured,
1 destroyed
3,000 dead or wounded,[3]
5,000 captured[2]

The Battle of the Saintes (known to the French as the Bataille de la Dominique), or Battle of Dominica was an important naval battle that took place over 4 days, 9 April 1782 – 12 April 1782, during the French fleet under the Comte de Grasse forcing the French and Spanish to abandon a planned invasion of Jamaica.[4]

The battle is named after the Saintes (or Saints), a group of islands between Guadeloupe and Dominica in the West Indies. The French fleet defeated here by the Royal Navy was the same French fleet that had blockaded the British Army during the Siege of Yorktown. The French suffered heavy casualties and many were taken prisoner including the Comte de Grasse. Four French ships of the line were captured (including the flagship) as well as one destroyed. Rodney was credited with pioneering the tactic of "breaking the line" in the battle, though this is disputed.[4][5]

Contents

  • Origins 1
  • Battle 2
    • Breaking of the line 2.1
  • Aftermath 3
  • Order of battle 4
    • Britain 4.1
    • France 4.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Origins

In October 1781 a plan had been worked out between Admiral Comte de Grasse, commander of the French fleet in the West Indies, and Francisco Saavedra de Sangronis, General Bureau for the Spanish Indies, court representative and aide to the Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Gálvez. The strategic objectives of this plan were to guide the Franco-Spanish military forces in the West Indies to accomplish the following objectives:

  • To aid the Americans and defeat the British naval squadron at New York
  • The capture of the British Windward Islands and
  • The conquest of Jamaica.[6]

This plan became known as the De Grasse – Saavedra Convention and the first objective was essentially met with the surrender of the British army under General Cornwallis at the Siege of Yorktown in September 1781. De Grasse and his fleet had played a decisive part in that victory, after which they then sailed to the Caribbean. On arrival in Saint Domingue November 1781 he was given news that the plan was given the go ahead: to proceed with the conquest of Jamaica.[7]

Naval Commanders

Jamaica was the largest and most profitable British island in the Caribbean, in particular the commodity that stood out the most was Lord Sandwich he declared that he would risk protecting Britain's important Caribbean islands at the risk of Britain herself, and this was strategy implemented in 1779.[8] Sugar made up 20% of all British imports and was worth five times as much as tobacco.[9] As well as the gradual expulsion of the British from the West Indies by the French and Spanish, the conquest was to force a massive blow on the British economy.[10] The invasion itself though was perceived in the courts at Paris and Madrid as an alternative to the Spanish and French attempts to take Gibraltar which for two years had been a costly disaster.[11]

While de Grasse waited for reinforcements to undertake the Jamaica campaign, he

  • Robinson, Ian M. (2009-12-03). "The Battle of the Saintes 12th April 1782". The Realm of Chance: warfare and the balance of power, 1618-1815. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 

External links

  • Douglas, Major-General Sir Howard; Christopher J. Valin (2010). Naval Evolutions: A Memoir. Fireship Press.  
  • Dull, Jonathan R. (1975). The French Navy and American Independence: A Study of Arms and Diplomacy, 1774-1787. Princeton University Press.  
  • Crossman, Mark World military leaders: a biographical dictionary Facts on File Inc (2006) ISBN 978-0-8160-4732-1
  • Fullom, S.W., Life of General Sir Howard Douglas, Bart. (1865)
  • Lebedev, A.A. From the Chesapeake to Dominica: the culmination of a fundamental dispute naval doctrines. Gangut. 2010. № 56 - 57
  • Mahan, A.T., Major Operations of the Navies in the War of Independence (1913)
  • Mahan, A.T., Types of Naval Officers, Drawn from the History of the British Navy (1901)
  • Mundy, Major-General Godfrey Basil, The Life and Correspondence of the Late Admiral Lord Rodney (1830)
  • Lavery, Brian (2009). Empire of the seas: how the navy forged the modern world. Conway.  
  • O'Shaughnessy, Andrew (2013). The Men Who Lost America: British Command during the Revolutionary War and the Preservation of the Empire. Oneworld Publications.  
  • Playfair, John. "On the Naval Tactics of the Late John Clerk, Esq. of Eldin." The Works of John Playfair, Vol. III (1822)
  • Rogoziński, Jan (1999). A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present. Facts On File.  
  • Roche, Jean-Michel (2005). Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours 1. Group Retozel-Maury Millau.  
  • Stevens, William (2009). History of Sea Power; Volume 95 of Historische Schiffahrt. Books on Demand.  
  • Trew, Peter (2006). Rodney and the Breaking of the Line. Pen & Sword Military.  
  •  
  • Valin, Christopher J. (2009). Fortune's Favorite: Sir Charles Douglas and the Breaking of the Line. Fireship Press.  

Bibliography

  1. ^ Black, Jeremy (1999). Warfare in the Eighteenth Century. London: Cassell. p. 141.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f Valin p. 58
  3. ^ a b c d Navies and the American Revolution, 1775−1783. Robert Gardiner, ed. Chatham Publishing, 1997, p.123-127. ISBN 1-55750-623-X
  4. ^ a b c d O'Shaughnessy p. 314
  5. ^ Valin p.67-68
  6. ^ Dull p. 244
  7. ^ Dull p. 248-49
  8. ^ O'Shaughnessy p. 208
  9. ^ Rogoziński p. 115
  10. ^ Trew p. 154-55
  11. ^ Dull p. 282
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Trew p. 157-62
  13. ^ a b c d e f Mahan. p. 205−226
  14. ^ a b c Lavery p. 144-45
  15. ^ Stevens p. 173
  16. ^ a b c Mahan p. 194−221
  17. ^ Tanstall, Brian. Naval Warfare in the Age of Sail: the Evolution of Fighting Tactics 1680—1815. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1990. p. 308. ISBN 1-55750-601-9
  18. ^ a b O'Shaughnessy p. 315-17
  19. ^ Roche, p.238
  20. ^ Troude, Batailles navales, p. 155
  21. ^ Macintyre, Donald (1962). Admiral Rodney. Norton. p. 239. 
  22. ^ Trew p. 169
  23. ^ Trew 158
  24. ^ Troude, Batailles navales, p. 158
  25. ^ Leyland, John (1899). Dispatches and letters relating to the blockade of Brest, 1803-1805. Printed for the  
  26. ^ "Rodney’s Battle of 12 April 1782: A Statement of Some Important Facts, Supported by Authentic Documents, Relating to the Operation of Breaking the Enemy’s Line, as Practiced for the First Time in the Celebrated Battle of 12 April 1782". Quarterly Review XLII (LXXXIII): 64. 1830. 
  27. ^ Valin p. 67-68
  28. ^ The London Gazette: no. 12396. pp. 3–4. 1782-10-12. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
Citations
  1. ^ Blane noted, When boarded, Ville de Paris presented a scene of complete horror. The numbers killed were so great that the surviving, either from want of leisure, or through dismay, had not thrown the bodies of the killed overboard, so that the decks were covered with the blood and mangled limbs of the dead, as well as the wounded and dying.[21]
  2. ^ According to Stoneland. He used cherry stones to represent two battle lines and declared to pierce the enemy's fleet.[4]
  3. ^ [26]
Footnotes

References

See also

Admiral the Comte de Grasse's fleet
Ship Guns Commander Fate
Ardent 64 de Gouzillon captured
Auguste 80 de Castellan
Chef d'escadre Louis Antoine de Bougainville
van flag
Bourgogne 74
Brave 74
César 74 captured, but destroyed
Citoyen 74
Conquérant 74
Couronne 80 Claude Mithon de Genouilly
Dauphin Royal 70 Pierre, comte de Roquefeuil
Destin 74
Diadème 74
Duc de Bourgogne 80
Éveillé 64
Glorieux 74 captured
Hector 74 captured
Hercule 74 Jean Isaac Chadeau de la Clocheterie
Languedoc 80
Magnanime 74
Magnifique 74
Marseillais 74
Neptune 74
Northumberland 74
Palmier 74
Pluton 74
Réfléchi 64
Richemond frigate Montemart
Sceptre 74 Marquis de Vaudreuil
Scipion 74
Souverain 74
Triomphant 80 Jean-François Du Cheyron  
Ville de Paris 104 François Joseph Paul de Grasse captured

France

Admiral Sir George Rodney's fleet
Van
Ship Rate Guns Commander Casualties Notes
Killed Wounded Total
HMS Royal Oak Third rate 74 Captain Thomas Burnett
8
30
38
HMS Alfred Third rate 74 Captain William Bayne  
12
40
52
Bayne killed on 9 April
HMS Montagu Third rate 74 Captain George Bowen
14
29
43
HMS Yarmouth Third rate 64 Captain Anthony Parrey
14
33
47
HMS Valiant Third rate 74 Captain Samuel Granston Goodall
10
28
38
HMS Barfleur Second rate 98 Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood
Captain John Knight
10
37
47
Flagship of van
HMS Monarch Third rate 74 Captain Francis Reynolds
16
33
49
HMS Warrior Third rate 74 Captain Sir James Wallace
5
21
26
HMS Belliqueux Third rate 64 Captain Andrew Sutherland
4
10
14
HMS Centaur Third rate 74 Captain John Nicholson Inglefield
?
?
?
No casualty returns made
HMS Magnificent Third rate 74 Captain Robert Linzee
6
11
17
HMS Prince William Third rate 64 Captain George Wilkinson
0
0
0
Centre
HMS Bedford Third rate 74 Commodore Edmund Affleck
Captain Thomas Graves
0
17
17
HMS Ajax Third rate 74 Captain Nicholas Charrington
9
40
49
HMS Repulse Third rate 64 Captain Thomas Dumaresq
3
11
14
HMS Canada Third rate 74 Captain William Cornwallis
12
23
35
HMS St Albans Third rate 64 Captain Charles Inglis
0
6
6
HMS Namur Second rate 90 Captain Robert Fanshawe
6
25
31
HMS Formidable Second rate 98 Admiral Sir George Rodney
Captain Sir Charles Douglas
2nd Captain Charles Symons
15
39
53
Flagship of centre
HMS Duke Second rate 98 Captain Alan Gardner
13
60
73
HMS Agamemnon Third rate 64 Captain Benjamin Caldwell
15
23
38
HMS Resolution Third rate 74 Captain Lord Robert Manners
4
34
38
HMS Prothee Third rate 64 Captain Charles Buckner
5
25
30
HMS Hercules Third rate 74 Captain Henry Savage
6
19
25
Captain Savage wounded
HMS America Third rate 64 Captain Samuel Thompson
1
1
2
Rear
HMS Russell Third rate 74 Captain James Saumarez
10
29
39
HMS Fame Third rate 74 Captain Robert Barbor
3
12
15
HMS Anson Third rate 64 Captain William Blair  
3
13
16
HMS Torbay Third rate 74 Captain John Lewis Gidoin
10
25
35
Prince GeorgeHMS  Second rate 98 Captain James Williams
9
24
33
HMS Princessa Third rate 70 Rear-Admiral Francis Samuel Drake
Captain Charles Knatchbull
3
22
25
Flagship of rear
HMS Conqueror Third rate 74 Captain George Balfour
7
23
30
HMS Nonsuch Third rate 64 Captain William Truscott
3
3
6
HMS Alcide Third rate 74 Captain Charles Thompson
?
?
?
No casualty returns made
HMS Arrogant Third rate 74 Captain Samuel Pitchford Cornish
0
0
0
HMS Marlborough Third rate 74 Captain Taylor Penny
3
16
19
Total recorded casualties: 239 killed, 762 wounded (casualties for two ships unknown)
Source: The London Gazette, 12 December 1782.[28]

Britain

Order of battle

As a result of the battle naval warfare changed along the tactical lines employed and would be used again by the British, including in the all-important Battle of Trafalgar, where Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon’s fleet using similar tactics.[2]

Following the Franco-American victory at Yorktown the previous year, and the change of Government in England, peace negotiations between Britain, the American colonies, France and Spain had begun in early 1782. The Battle of the Saintes transferred the strategic initiative to the British, with the most likely further military action being an attack on the French sugar islands, and the French, in particular, were consequently inclined to ameliorate their terms. Britain's dominance at sea was reasserted and it also became clear to the Americans that they could look forward to less French support in the future. The Siege of Gibraltar exacerbated this, when later in the year the defeat of the huge Franco-Spanish assault and the subsequent relief by Richard Howe led to the lifting of the siege in February 1783.[13] Initial articles of peace were signed in July, with a full treaty in September 1783.

Nevertheless France and Spain's plan to invade Jamaica were ruined, and it remained a British colony with no further threat, as indeed were Barbados, St Lucia and Antigua.[2] Rodney was feted a hero on his return; he presented the Comte De Grasse as his prisoner personally to the King. He was created a peer with £2,000 a year settled on the title in perpetuity for this victory. Hood was elevated to the peerage as well while Drake and Affleck were both made a baronet.[16]

Captive French ships after the battle by Dominic Serres
  • The battle is famous for the innovative tactic of "breaking the line", in which the British ships passed though a gap in the French line, engaging the enemy from leeward and throwing them into disorder.[4] There is however considerable controversy about whether the tactic was intentional, and, if so, who was responsible for the idea: Rodney[2], his Scottish Captain-of-the-Fleet and Aide-de-camp Sir Charles Douglas [3] or John Clerk of Eldin[27] Arguably the battle was not the first time a line had been broken; Dano–Norwegian admiral Niels Juel did this in the Battle of Køge Bay more than a hundred years earlier and even earlier the Dutch admiral Michiel de Ruyter used it for the first time in the last day of the Four Days' Battle in 1666 (and again in the Battle of Schooneveld and the Battle of Texel of 1673).
  • On the French side, de Grasse blamed his subordinates, Vaudreuil and Bougainville, for his defeat.
Had a chief worthy Britain commanded our fleet,
Twenty-five good French ships had been laid at our feet.
[25]
  • Rodney’s failure to follow up the victory by a pursuit was much criticised. Samuel Hood said that the 20 French ships would have been captured had the commander-in-chief maintained the chase. One hundred and twenty years later, the Navy Records Society published the Dispatches and Letters Relating to the Blockading of Brest. In the introduction they include a small biography of Admiral William Cornwallis who commanded the Canada at the Saintes. A poem purportedly written by him includes the lines:

The battle has caused controversy ever since, for three reasons:

In May all French ships from the battle arrived from Martinique and which then numbered twenty-six ships and were soon joined by twelve Spanish ships. Disease then took a hold of the French forces in particular the soldiers in which thousands died. The allies now hesitated and indecisions soon led to the abandonment of the enterprise upon Jamaica.[12]

Soon after the defeat, the French fleet reached Cap Francois in several waves, the main corps under Vaudreuil arrived on 25 April; Marseillois, along with Hercule, Pluton and Éveillé, arrived on 11 May.[24]

On 17 April, Hood was sent in pursuit of the French and promptly captured two 64-gun ships of the line (Jason and Caton) and two smaller warships in the Battle of the Mona Passage on 19 April.[3]

A 1785 engraving of de Grasse surrendering to Rodney.

The British lost 243 killed and 816 wounded, and two captains out of 36 were killed. The French loss in killed and wounded has never been stated, but of captains alone, six were killed out of 30. It is estimated that the French loss may have been as much as 3,000 and more than 5,000 French soldiers and sailors were captured, in addition to the captured French ships several of their ships were severely damaged.[22] The large number shows what a considerable force the French were willing to put ashore with the invasion of Jamaica.[23] Of the Ville de Paris‍ '​ crew, over 400 were killed and more than 700 were wounded- more than the entire casualties of the British fleet.[2]

Aftermath

The Comte de Vaudreuil in the Sceptre learning of de Grasse's fate assumed command of the scattered French naval fleet. On 13 April he had ten ships with him and sailed towards Cap-Français.[12]

Finally the isolated Ville de Paris being overwhelmed and suffering horrific losses eventually struck her colours.[20] Hood took the surrender and the boarding crew which included the British fleet surgeon Gilbert Blane were horrified at the carnage;[1] Remarkably de Grasse appeared not to have a scratch on him while every one of his officers were either killed or wounded. Rodney boarded soon after and Hood then presented de Grasse to him.[12] With his surrender the battle had effectively finished except for a few long range desultory shots and the retreat of many of the French ships in disorder.[13] With the fire now out of control the magazine aboard the César exploded, killing over 400 French and 50 British sailors despite many of them jumping overboard.[3]

At 4pm De Grasse with the Ville de Paris on its own being battered by Barfleur, with little support and suffering huge losses in men made another attempt to signal the fleet, by ordering "to build the line on the starboard tack" but again this was not fulfilled.[13] By this time most of the French fleet apart from those surrounded had retreated; Louis Antoine de Bougainville who commanded the Auguste, succeeded in rallying eight ships of his own division.[12]

The end of the César, by François Aimé Louis Dumoulin

At the same time Commodore Edmund Affleck to the south, also immediately capitalized on the opportunity and led the rearmost of the British ships through the French line inflicting significant damage. The French tried to restore order; around 1:30 pm, De Grasse signaled line on the port tack but this was not fulfilled; he was soon battling Hood's 90-gun HMS Barfleur.[14] With their formation shattered and many of their ships severely damaged, the French fell away to the southwest in small groups.[12] Rodney attempted to redeploy and make repairs before pursuing the French.[3] By 2pm the wind freshened and a general chase ensued, and as the British pressed south they took possession of Glorieux and caught up to the French rear around 3:00pm. In succession, Rodney's ships had isolated the other three ships; César which was soon totally dismasted and in flames, was captured by HMS Centaur. Hector, a complete dismasted wreck struck after having battled HMS Canada and HMS Alcide.[19] Ardent soon followed being taken by the rest of the British centre.[18]

With an hour the wind had shifted to the south and thus forced the French line to separate and bear to the west as it could not hold its course into the wind. This allowed the British to use their guns on each side of their ships without any fear of return fire from the front and rear of the French ships they were passing between. The affect was more telling with the use of carronades which the British had just equipped nearly half their fleet; this relatively new weapon at close range was devastating. The Glorieux was the first to be taken advantage of; virtually a sitting duck she was quickly pounded and dismasted by intense fire. Four French ships in the confusion began milling around; Formidable turned to starboard and had brought its port guns to bear on them.[12] As a result Formidable sailed through the French line blasting her way through; this piercing was followed by five other British ships.[13]

At 8 am Formidable opened fire and engaged the French center and as she slowed, duelled de Grasse's flagship the Ville de Paris of 104 guns. The rest of the ships soon followed raking the French as they did so causing huge casualties amongst the soldiers and sailors.[18] Around 9:00am, Drake's rearmost ship, HMS Russell cleared the end of the French fleet and hauled wind and while his ships had taken some damage, they had inflicted a severe battering on them.[16]

Rodney’s flagship Formidable breaking through the French line at the Saintes; painted by William Elliott

As the battle progressed, the strong winds of the previous day and night began to temper and became more variable. As the French line passed down the British line, the sudden shift of wind let Rodney's flagship HMS Formidable and several other ships, including HMS Duke and HMS Bedford, sail towards the French line.[17]

Breaking of the line

Rear-Admiral Hood's van division were still making repairs from the action three days earlier, so he directed his rear division, under Rear Admiral Francis S. Drake, to take the lead. At 7:40 HMS Marlborough under Captain Taylor Penny, led the British line and opened the battle when he approached the center of the French line.[14] Having remained parallel with the French, the ships of Drake's division then passed the remaining length of de Grasse's line and the two sides exchanged broadsides; a typical naval engagement of this time.[12]

On 12 April, the French were sighted a short distance away as the two fleets maneuvered between the northern end of Dominica and the Saintes. A French straggler, the (Zélé'', 74 guns) was spotted and was being chased by four British ships as De Grasse made for Guadeloupe. He bore up with his fleet to protect the ship which led him to Guadeloupe and at the same time Rodney recalled his chasing ships and made the signal for line of battle.[16]

In the following days the two fleets faced each other parallel but both sides kept their distance as they repaired their ships.[13]

Main stages of the battle

On 9 April 1782, the copper hulled British fleet soon caught up with the French who were surprised by their speed.[15] De Grasse ordered the French convoy to head into Guadeloupe for repair, forcing him to escort two fifty-gun ships (Fier and Experiment) and placing its fleet in line of battle in order to cover the retreat. The British fleet became separated from the centre and rear divisions and eight ships of their vanguard under Rear-Admiral Samuel Hood, however, moved against de Grasse's retreating ships and waged a fight. After an inconclusive encounter in which both sides suffered damage, de Grasse soon realized that the main British fleet would soon be upon them. He broke off the engagement to return to protect the merchant convoy.[12]

Battle

The British ships by this time had hulls which had gone through a process known as copper sheathing; found to be a practicable means of protecting them from marine growth and fouling as well as salt water corrosion. The result of this was that the speed and sailing performance as a whole in good wind improved dramatically.[14]

On 7 April 1782, de Grasse set out from Martinique with 35 ships of the line, including two 50-gun ships and a large convoy of more than 100 cargo ships, to meet with a Spanish fleet consisting of 12 ships of the line. In addition de Grasse was to rendezvous with 15,000 troops at Saint Domingue earmarked for the conquest by landing on Jamaica's North coast.[12] Rodney on learning of this then sailed from St Lucia in pursuit now with 36 ships of the line the following day.[13]

[12]

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