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Chess Records

Chess Records
Founded 1950
Founder Leonard Chess
Phil Chess
Status disestablished 1975
Genre Blues
Rock and roll
Rhythm and blues
Country of origin United States
Location Chicago, Illinois

Chess Records was an American record company based in Chicago, Illinois, whose catalog is now owned by parent company Universal Music Group, with the catalogue managed by Geffen Records. It specialized in blues, R&B, soul music, gospel music, early rock and roll, and occasional jazz and comedy recordings, released on several labels including Chess, Checker, Argo and Cadet.

Founding in 1950 and run by Polish immigrant brothers Leonard and Phil Chess, the company produced and released many important singles and albums, which are now regarded as central to the rock music canon. Musician and critic Cub Koda described Chess Records as "America's greatest blues label."[1]

Chess Records was based at several different locations on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, initially at two different locations on South Cottage Grove Ave.[2] The most famous location was 2120 S. Michigan Avenue from around 1956 to 1965, immortalized by British rock group The Rolling Stones in "2120 South Michigan Avenue", an instrumental recorded there during the group's first U.S. tour in 1964. The Stones recorded at Chess Studios on two more occasions. The building is now home to Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation. In the mid-1960s, Chess re-located to a much larger building at 320 E. 21st St., the label's final Chicago home.[2]


  • History 1
    • Chess brothers' company 1.1
    • Under GRT and All Platinum 1.2
    • Later incarnations 1.3
  • References 2
  • External links 3


Chess brothers' company

The Chess Records logo, as featured on this Memphis Slim single.

Leonard bought a stake in a record company called Aristocrat Records in 1947; in 1950, Leonard brought his brother, Phil into the operation and they became sole owners of the company, renaming it as Chess Records.

The first release on Chess was the 78 RPM single "My Foolish Heart" b/w "Bless You" by Gene Ammons, which was released as Chess 1425 in June 1950, and became the label's biggest hit of the year.[3]

In 1951, the Chess brothers began an association with Sam Phillips' Memphis Recording Service.[3] One of the most important recordings that Phillips gave to Chess was "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston/Ike Turner and his Delta Cats which topped Billboard magazine's R&B Records chart[4] and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1998 because of its influence as a rock and roll single.[5] One of the most important artists that came out of Memphis was Howlin' Wolf,[6] who stayed with the label until his death in 1976. Many songs created by Chess artists were later reproduced by many famous Rock n' Roll bands and artists such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Beach Boys and Eric Clapton. Some of the core riffs created by Bo Diddley, Willie Dixon, Chuck Berry, Howlin Wolf, Muddy Waters, Buddy Guy and others were the basis of a wide amount of Rock n' Roll.

In 1952, the brothers also started Checker Records as an alternative label for radio play (radio stations would only play a limited number of records from any one imprint).[7] In December 1955, they launched a jazz and pop label called Marterry, a name created from the first names of Leonard and Phil's sons Marshall and Terry.[2] This was quickly renamed Argo Records, but the name was changed again in 1965 to Cadet Records to end confusion with a British spoken word label.

In 1953, Leonard Chess and Gene Goodman set up Arc Music BMI, a publishing company that would publish songs by many rhythm and blues artists.[8]

In the mid-1950s, the Chess brothers received two doo-wop groups by Alan Freed, the Coronets and the Moonglows; the former group was not very popular but the latter achieved several crossover hits including "Sincerely", which was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002.[5] Several of Chess's releases gave a writing credit to Alan Freed.

During the 1950s, Leonard and Phil Chess handled most of the production. They brought in producer

  • Marshall Chess in-depth interview by Pete Lewis, 'Blues & Soul' August 2010
  • Official site
  • Former Chess Records Studio Historic Landmark
  • The Chess Story, by Mike Callahan and David Edwards
  • Chess Records at
  • Chess Records in the Encyclopedia of Chicago
  • Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation

External links

  1. ^ Allmusic ((( Chess Blues > Overview )))
  2. ^ a b c d e Cohodas, Nadine (2000). Spinning Blues into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records. New York: St. Martins.
  3. ^ a b George R. White; Robert L. Campbell; Tom Kelly. "The Chess Label Part I (1950–1952)". Robert Campbell.  
  4. ^  
  5. ^ a b "Grammy Hall of Fame".  
  6. ^ Leonard Chess and Howlin' Wolf interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
  7. ^ Dahl, Bill CHESS RECORDS AND THE TEN 7″S THAT HELPED SHAPE MODERN MUSIC Vinyl Factory. August 5, 2015
  8. ^ "Chess, Goodman In New Firm...".  
  9. ^ Howard Mandel, ed. (2005). The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Jazz & Blues.  
  10. ^ "Accuse Chesses in Court Suit".  
  11. ^ "Middle Earth Records Discography". Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  12. ^ "Muddy Waters - Can't Be Satisfied | American Masters". PBS. 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  13. ^ Don Snowden, I am the Blues, p.186.
  14. ^ Reece, Doug (December 7, 1996). "Vital Reissues – A Selected Guide to Fourthcoming Releases".  
  15. ^ Holland, Bill (October 8, 1997). "MCA Is Victor in Supreme Ct. Refusal to Hear Charly Case".  
  16. ^ Anderson, John (September 17, 2008). "Who Do You Love - Review". Variety. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 


Chess Records was the subject of two films produced in 2008, Cadillac Records and Who Do You Love?. In addition to the Chess brothers, both films feature portrayals of or based on Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Chuck Berry, Howlin' Wolf and Etta James. Cadillac Records was directed by Darnell Martin and features an ensemble cast including Adrien Brody, Mos Def, Beyoncé Knowles and Jeffrey Wright. Who Do You Love was directed by Tony Award winner Jerry Zaks and stars Alessandro Nivola playing Leonard Chess "as a complicated, driven man, hard on both his musicians and his family, yet with a real love for some of America's greatest music." The latter film's world premiere was at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 11, 2008.[16]

In the 2000s, Universal's limited-edition re-issue label, Hip-O Select began releasing a series of comprehensive box-sets devoted to such Chess artists as Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry.

In the 1990s, MCA Records sued Charly Records for selling CDs which contained copyrighted material by Chess artists.[15]

In February 1997, MCA started releasing eleven compilation albums for the 50th anniversary of Chess Records.[14]

In the early 1980s, noticing that much of the Chess catalog was unavailable, Marshall Chess was able to convince Joe and Sylvia Robinson, who ran All Platinum, to re-issue the catalog themselves under his supervision (All Platinum had been licensing selected tracks out to other companies, which ultimately resulted in the disappearance of some original master tapes).[2] The re-issued singles and LPs sold well, but by the mid-80s, All Platinum fell into financial difficulties and the Chess master recordings were acquired by MCA Records, which itself was later merged into Universal Music imprint, Geffen Records.

Later incarnations

Although Chess had produced many R&B number ones and major pop hits over the years, it was in 1972 that the label finally reached the top of the Billboard Hot 100 with Chuck Berry's "My Ding-a-Ling", a live recording from a concert in Coventry, England. However, this became the company's 'swansong' release. GRT had moved the label to New York City, operating it as a division of Janus Records. Under GRT, Chess effectively vanished as an important force in the recording industry. In August 1975, GRT sold the remnants of Chess Records to New Jersey-based All Platinum Records.

Some of the other artists who contributed to their legacy were The Flamingos, The Moonglows, Fontella Bass, Billy Stewart, The Dells and The Ramsey Lewis Trio.

In 1969, the Chess brothers sold the label to General Recorded Tape (GRT) for $6.5 million. In October 1969, Leonard Chess died and by 1972, the only part of Chess Records still operating in Chicago was the recording studio, Ter-Mar Studios. Following the sale of Chess to GRT, Phil left the label to run WVON radio station. In the 1970s, Chess Records and its publishing arm Arc Music were successfully sued by Muddy Waters[12] and Willie Dixon[13] for non-payment of royalties owed to them.

Under GRT and All Platinum

The company was briefly run by Marshall Chess, son of Leonard, in his position as vice-president between January and October 1969, and then as president following its acquisition by GRT, before he went on to found Rolling Stones Records.

In 1969, Chess Records established a subsidiary label called Middle Earth Records in the U.K., which was distributed by Pye Records. The subsidiary specialized in Psychedelic rock and was a joint venture with the Middle Earth Club in London. The Middle Earth label released only 4 albums titles and about a dozen singles before it was closed in 1970.[11]

Chess Records was also known for its regular band of session musicians who played on most of the company's Chicago soul recordings, such as drummer Peacock Records for recording their artists Reverend Robert Ballinger and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi.[10]

In 1958, Chess began producing their first LP records[9] which included such albums as The Best of Muddy Waters, Best of Little Walter, and Bo Diddley.

Chess Studios 2120 South Michigan Ave, Chicago, later Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation (photo 2009)

and on early Motown releases. Marv Johnson, Etta James on songs for Jackie Wilson, Berry Gordy founder Motown, who had previously worked with Roquel "Billy" Davis During the 1960s, the company's A&R manager and chief producer for soul/R&B recordings was [2]

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