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Close-mid back rounded vowel

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Title: Close-mid back rounded vowel  
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Close-mid back rounded vowel

Close-mid back rounded vowel
o
IPA number 307
Encoding
Entity (decimal) o
Unicode (hex) U+006F
X-SAMPA o
Kirshenbaum o
Braille ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound
 ·

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is o.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] Botha [ˈböˑtɐ] 'Botha' Near-back. Allophone of /oə/ in less stressed words, in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words and in word-finally when unstressed. In the second case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [öə̯ ~ ö̯ə ~ öə].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Egyptian بؤ [boʔ] 'mouth' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hoga [hoːga] 'steam'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2]
Bulgarian уста [os̪ˈt̪a] 'mouth' See Bulgarian language
Catalan[3] sóc [sok] 'I am' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /gou1 [kou] 'tall' See Cantonese phonology
Wu [ho] 'flower'
Czech oko [ˈoko] 'eye' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7][8] kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[9] kool     'cabbage' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [oʊ]. See Dutch phonology
Northeastern
Standard
Netherlandic
Leuven maken [ˈmoːkə] 'make' Corresponds to /aː/ in standard Dutch.
English Australian[10] yawn [joːn] 'yawn' See Australian English phonology
Cockney[11] In non-final position it can also be a diphthong like [oʊ] or [ɔo]. Word finally it's [ɔː]~[ɔə]~[ɔwə].
New Zealand[12]
South African[13] General and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel.
General Indian[14] go [ɡoː] 'go'
General Pakistani[15] Varies between [oː~əʊ~ʊ].
Multicultural London[16]
Scottish[17]
Singaporean[18]
Faroese tosa [ˈtoːsa] 'speak'
French[19] réseau     'net' See French phonology
German Standard[20] oder     'or' See German phonology
Hindustani दो/دو     'two' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian kór [koːr] 'disease' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[21] foro [ˈfoːro] 'hole' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[22] [pɪˈpo] 'toad'
Korean 보수/bosu [ˈpoːsu] 'salary' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Most dialects[23][24][25] hoof [ɦoːf] 'garden' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Rural Weerts[26] koke [ˈkoːkə] 'to cook' Corresponds to /uə/ in the city dialect. The vowel transcribed /oː/ in the city dialect is actually a centering diphthong /oə/.[27]
Luxembourgish[28] Sonn [zon] 'sun'
Marathi गोड [ɡoɖ] 'sweet' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian Stavangersk[29] lov [lo̟ːʋ] 'law' Somewhat fronted.[29] See Norwegian phonology
Polish jojo [ˈjojɔ] 'yo-yo' Allophone of /ɔ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[30] dois [d̪ojʃ] 'two' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਹੋਰ     'more'
Shiwiar[31] Allophone of /a/.[31]
Silesian Ślůnsk [ˈɕlonsk] 'Silesia'
Slovak Some speakers[32] telefón [ˈt̻e̞l̺e̞foːn̺] 'telephone' Realization of /oː/ reported to occur in dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ, as well as - under Hungarian influence - in some other speakers. Corresponds to mid [o̞ː] in standard Slovak.[32] See Slovak phonology
Swedish åka     'travel' See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian мотузка [moˈtuzkɑ] 'rope' Unstressed allophone of /ɔ/ before stressed syllables with /u/. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese tô [toː] 'bowl' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian bok [bok] 'billy-goat'
Yoruba[33]

References

  1. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  2. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  6. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  7. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  8. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  9. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  10. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  11. ^ Wells (1982a:311)
  12. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  13. ^ Lass (2002:116)
  14. ^ Wells (1982b:626)
  15. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004:1009)
  16. ^ Gimson (2014:91)
  17. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  18. ^ Deterding (2000)
  19. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  20. ^ Kohler (1999:87), Mangold (2005:37)
  21. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  22. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  23. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  24. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  25. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  26. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  27. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107, 109)
  28. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  29. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:17)
  30. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  31. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  32. ^ a b Kráľ (1988:92)
  33. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

Bibliography

  • Allan, Robin; Holmes, Philip; Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom (2000), Danish: An Essential Grammar, London: Routledge,  
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Deterding, David (2000), "Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Ling, Low Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76,  
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74,  
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105,  
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag,  
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–84,  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89,  
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  •  
  •  
  • Lass, Roger (1987), "Intradiphthongal Dependencies", in Anderson, John; Durand, Jaques, Explorations in Dependency Phonology, Dordrecht: Foris Publications Holland, pp. 109–131,  
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Mahboob, Ahmar; Ahmar, Nadra H. (2004), "Pakistani English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W., A handbook of varieties of English 1, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1003–1015 
  • Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37,  
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245,  
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121,  
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 219–225,  
  • Wells, J.C. (1982a), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982b), Accents of English 3: Beyond The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
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