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Colonia del Sacramento

Colonia del Sacramento
Capital city
Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento is located in Uruguay
Colonia del Sacramento
Coordinates:
Country  Uruguay
Department Colonia
Founded 1680
Founded by Manuel Lobo
Elevation 27 m (89 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 26,231
Time zone UTC -3
Postal code 70000
Dial plan +598 452 (+5 digits)

Colonia del Sacramento (Spanish pronunciation: ; formerly the Portuguese Colónia do Sacramento) is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is one of the oldest towns in Uruguay and capital of the Colonia Department. It has a population of around 27,000.

It is renowned for its historic quarter, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[1] Modern Colonia del Sacramento produces textiles and has a free trade zone, in addition to a polytechnic centre and various government buildings.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Timeline of rule 1.1
  • Population 2
  • Climate 3
  • Urban fabric 4
  • Points of interest 5
  • Gallery 6
  • Transportation 7
  • Consular representation 8
  • Twin town/sister city 9
  • See also 10
  • Bibliography 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

History

Founded in 1680 by Portugal as Colónia do Sacramento, the colony was later disputed by the Spanish who settled on the opposite bank of the river at Buenos Aires. The colony was conquered by José de Garro in 1680, but returned to Portugal the next year. It was conquered again by the Spanish in March 1705 after a siege of five months, but given back in the Treaty of Utrecht. Another attack during the Spanish-Portuguese War, 1735-1737, failed.

It kept changing hands from crown to crown due to treaties such as the Treaty of Madrid in 1750 and the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, until it remained with the Spanish. It then transferred to Portuguese control again, being later incorporated into Brazil after 1816, when the entire Banda Oriental (Uruguay) was seized by the government of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and renamed the Cisplatina province.

On 10 January 1809, before the independence of Uruguay, it was designated as a "Villa" (town) and has since been elevated to the status of "Ciudad" (city).

Since independence, Colonia del Sacramento has expanded to the north and east, but the original Barrio Histórico (historic quarter) retains its irregular, terrain-fitting street plan built by the Portuguese, contrasting with the wider, orthogonal calles in the newer Spanish area.

Timeline of rule

The rule from 1680 to present (with flag of the period) is:

From To Rule Reason for Handover
1680 1680 Portugal     conquered by José de Garro
1680 1681    Spain Provisional Treaty of Lisbon
1681 1705 Portugal conquered in the War of Spanish Succession
1705 1713    Spain Treaty of Utrecht
1714 1762 Portugal First Cevallos expedition
1762 1763    Spain Treaty of Paris (1763)
1763 1777 Portugal Second Cevallos expedition
1777 1811    Spain Revolt led by José Gervasio Artigas   
1811 1817 Liga Federal Luso-Brazilian invasion
1817 1822 Portugal Brazilian Declaration of Independence
1822 1828 Brazil Cisplatine War
1828 present Uruguay

Population

In 2011 Colonia del Sacramento had a population of 26,231.[2]

Year Population
1908 8,021
1963 12,846
1975 17,046
1985 19,102
1996 22,200
2004 21,714
2011 26,231

Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística de Uruguay[3]

Climate

Colonia del Sacramento has a mild humid subtropical climate, described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. Summers are warm and winters are cool, with relatively frequent frosts and fog. The precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with an average of 1,039 mm (40.91 in), and the annual average temperature is 17 °C (63 °F).

Climate data for Colonia del Sacramento , Uruguay
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.6
(103.3)
35.8
(96.4)
34.9
(94.8)
31.6
(88.9)
30.9
(87.6)
25.8
(78.4)
30.6
(87.1)
28.8
(83.8)
30.6
(87.1)
32.8
(91)
36.4
(97.5)
38.0
(100.4)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) 27.3
(81.1)
27.2
(81)
25.4
(77.7)
21.7
(71.1)
18.3
(64.9)
14.9
(58.8)
14.6
(58.3)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
20.9
(69.6)
23.8
(74.8)
26.7
(80.1)
21.2
(70.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
22.9
(73.2)
21.2
(70.2)
17.9
(64.2)
14.8
(58.6)
11.7
(53.1)
11.4
(52.5)
12.2
(54)
14.1
(57.4)
16.8
(62.2)
19.5
(67.1)
22.3
(72.1)
17.4
(63.3)
Average low °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
18.8
(65.8)
17.2
(63)
14.3
(57.7)
11.4
(52.5)
8.7
(47.7)
8.1
(46.6)
8.9
(48)
10.3
(50.5)
12.8
(55)
15.0
(59)
17.6
(63.7)
13.5
(56.3)
Record low °C (°F) 10.1
(50.2)
10.3
(50.5)
8.1
(46.6)
5.1
(41.2)
0.2
(32.4)
0.0
(32)
−0.7
(30.7)
0.4
(32.7)
1.5
(34.7)
4.7
(40.5)
4.1
(39.4)
8.8
(47.8)
−0.7
(30.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 92
(3.62)
116
(4.57)
125
(4.92)
91
(3.58)
78
(3.07)
66
(2.6)
69
(2.72)
76
(2.99)
80
(3.15)
113
(4.45)
108
(4.25)
87
(3.43)
1,099
(43.27)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 6 70
Average relative humidity (%) 70 73 74 77 79 81 79 78 75 74 72 69 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 285.6 223.1 228.5 182.9 166.1 137.0 142.6 168.1 194.6 232.2 240.9 270.0 2,471.6
Source: Dirección Nacional de Meteorología [4]

Urban fabric

The city was developed on a peninsula that protrudes into the Río de la Plata. The 16 hectare "Barrio Histórico", or Portuguese Old City, was enclosed by a fortification wall across the peninsula in the site of present day Calle Ituzaingó.[5] Most of the fortification wall was removed in 1777 and the remaining parts in 1859. The Portuguese part of the city has an irregular street network.

Outside the wall, the historical part of the city was planned in Spanish colonial style and in the characteristic checkerboard layout.

Points of interest

The Barrio Histórico (historic quarter) section of Colonia del Sacramento is designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is a popular tourist attraction for visitors from Buenos Aires, and there is frequent ferry service across the Río de la Plata between the two cities, with fast ferries completing the journey in just 50 minutes. The historical section of Colonia, which has some cobblestone streets built by the Portuguese in the 17th century, is within walking distance of the ferry terminal. Among the notable tourist attractions around the tree-lined Plaza Mayor (main square) are:

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 747
UNESCO region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1995 (19th Session)
  • Portón de Campo – the City Gate and wooden drawbridge
  • Lighthouse and convent ruins of the 17th century Convent of San Francisco
  • Basílica del Santísimo Sacramento – the Basilica of the Holy Sacrament, built of stone by the Portuguese in 1808
  • Portuguese Museum – constructed in the 18th century, it exhibits Portuguese furnishings, jewelry, uniforms and old maps of Portuguese naval expeditions
  • Casa de Nacarello – an 18th-century Portuguese house
  • Municipal Museum – rebuilt by the Spanish in 1835 as the Casa del Almirante Brown, it exhibits artifacts and documents of the city's different periods and cultures
  • Viceroy's House – the Casa del Virrey, reconstructed from the original ruins
  • Plaza de toros Real de San Carlos, a Bullring included in an old tourist complex now abandoned.

Gallery

Transportation

Colonia del Sacramento is served by three ferry boat lines from Buenos Aires, Argentina: "Buquebus", "Seacat Colonia" and "Colonia Express".

Two principal highways end in Colonia: Route 1 connects Colonia to Montevideo and points east; Route 21 connects to points north, including the Aarón de Anchorena National Park, 30 kilometres (19 mi) distant, and Fray Bentos. There is also a local airport for small planes. There is a project in process to lengthen the runway and begin commercial flights to Buenos Aires (this was done in the past) and other cities within Uruguay.

The city is served by Laguna de los Patos International Airport located 17 km from Colonia along Route 1.

Consular representation

Argentina maintains a consulate in Colonia del Sacramento.

Twin town/sister city

See also

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ "21 World Heritage Sites you have probably never heard of". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  2. ^ "Censos 2011 Cuadros Colonia". INE. 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Statistics of urban localities (1963–2004)" (PDF). INE. 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  4. ^ "Estadísticas climatológicas" (in Spanish). Dirección Nacional de Meteorología. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Colonia del Sacramento Old Town". Wondermondo. 
  6. ^ (Portuguese) Cidades-irmãs de Pelotas terão espaço na Fenadoce, Prefeitura Municipal de Pelotas - accessed on June 4, 2007.

External links

  • Article on Colonia del Sacramento, Official Portal of the Uruguayan Government
  • 360° Virtual Tours of Colonia del Sacramento - Uruguay360.com.uy
  • Tourist information about Colonia del Sacramento
  • Tourist guide about Colonia del Sacramento – photos, hosting and attractions of Colonia del Sacramento attractions
  • Colonia del Sacramento Website
  • INE map of Colonia del Sacramento
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