World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Colorado River language

Article Id: WHEBN0025945722
Reproduction Date:

Title: Colorado River language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Languages of the United States, Paiute people, Numic languages
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Colorado River language

Colorado River Numic Language
Native to United States
Region Nevada, California, Utah, Arizona, Colorado
Native speakers
920  (2007)[1]
Uto-Aztecan
  • Numic
    • Southern Numic
      • Colorado River Numic Language
Dialects
Chemehuevi
Southern Paiute
Ute
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ute
Glottolog utes1238[2]

Colorado River Numic (also called Ute , Southern Paiute , Ute–Southern Paiute, or Ute-Chemehuevi), of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, is a dialect chain that stretches from southeastern California to Colorado.[3] Individual dialects are Chemehuevi, which is in danger of extinction, Southern Paiute (Moapa, Cedar City, Kaibab, and San Juan subdialects), and Ute (Central Utah, Northern, White Mesa, Southern subdialects). According to the Ethnologue, there were a little less than two thousand speakers of Colorado River Numic Language in 1990, or ca. 40% out of an ethnic population of 5,000. [4]

The Southern Paiute dialect has played a significant role in linguistics, as the background for a famous article by linguist Edward Sapir and his collaborator Tony Tillohash on the nature of the phoneme.[5]

Morphology

The Colorado River Numic language is an agglutinative language, in which words use suffix complexes for a variety of purposes with several morphemes strung together.

Dialects

The three major dialect groups of Colorado River are Chemehuevi, Southern Paiute, and Ute, although there are no strong isoglosses. The threefold division is primarily one of culture rather than strictly linguistic. There are, however, three major phonological distinctions among the dialects:

  • In Southern Paiute and Ute, initial /h/ has been lost. E.g., Chemehuevi /hipi/ 'drink', other dialects /ipi/ 'drink'
  • In Ute, nasal-stop clusters have become voiceless geminate stops. E.g. Ute /pukku/ 'horse, pet', other dialects /puŋku/
  • In Ute, the mid back round vowel /o/ has been fronted to /ö/. E.g. Ute /söö-/ 'lungs', other dialects /soo-/

There are not strong isoglosses between Southern Paiute and Ute for these changes, but an increasing level of change as one moves from Kaibab Southern Paiute (0% of nasal-stop clusters have changed) to Southern Ute (100% of nasal-stop clusters have changed).

References

  1. ^ Colorado River Numic Language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ute-Southern Paiute". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Mithun (1999:542)
  4. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code:ute". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  5. ^ Sapir, Edward (1933). "La réalité psychologique des phonèmes (The psychological reality of phonemes)". Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique (in French). 

External links

  • A Preliminary Analysis of Southern Ute with a Special Focus on Noun Phrases - also contains phonology information
  • Chemehuevi language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
  • A Chemehuevi Language Archive - 1970s Fieldwork and Analysis by Margaret L. Press
  • OLAC resources in and about the Ute-Southern Paiute language

Bibliography

  • Bunte, Pamela A. (1979). "Problems in Southern Paiute Syntax and Semantics," Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation.
  • Charney, Jean O. (1996). A Dictionary of the Southern Ute Language. Ignacio, Colorado: Ute Press.
  • Givón, Talmy (2011). Ute Reference Grammar. Culture and Language Use Volume 3. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  • Laird, Carobeth (1976). The Chemehuevis. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Press, Margaret L. (1979). Chemehuevi, A Grammar and Lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 92. Berkeley, CA. University of California Press.
  • Sapir, Edward (1930). Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
  • Sapir, Edward (1931). Southern Paiute Dictionary. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.