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Freedom of choice

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Title: Freedom of choice  
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Freedom of choice

Freedom of choice describes an individual's opportunity and autonomy to perform an action selected from at least two available options, unconstrained by external parties.[1][2]


  • In law 1
  • In economics 2
  • Measuring freedom of choice 3
  • Relationship with happiness 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

In law

In the abortion debate, for example, the term "freedom of choice" may be used in defense of the position that a woman has a right to determine whether she will proceed with or terminate a pregnancy.[3][4][5] Similarly, other topics such as euthanasia,[6] contraception[7] and same-sex marriage[8] are sometimes discussed in terms of an individual right of "freedom of choice." Some social issues, for example the New York "Soda Ban" have been both defended[9] and opposed[10] with reference to "freedom of choice."

In economics

The freedom to choose which brand and flavor of soda to buy is related to market competition.

In microeconomics, freedom of choice is the freedom of economic agents to allocate their resources as they see fit, among the options (such as goods, services, or assets) that are available to them.[11][12] It includes the freedom to engage in employment available to them.[13]

Ratner et al., in 2008, cited the literature on

  1. ^ Carter, Ian (February 2004). "Choice, freedom, and freedom of choice". Social Choice and Welfare (Springer) 22 (1): 61–81.  
  2. ^ Sebastiano Bavetta, Ph.D., and Pietro Navarra, Ph.D. (2011). "5". Index of Economic Freedom (Report).  
  3. ^ "BBC - Arguments in favour of abortion.". Retrieved February 12, 2013. This leads some people to claim is that it is unethical to ban abortion because doing so denies freedom of choice to women and forces 'the unwilling to bear the unwanted'" 
  4. ^ "Freedom of Choice Act - H.R.1964". Retrieved February 13, 2013. Freedom of Choice Act - Declares that it is the policy of the United States that every woman has the fundamental right to choose to: (1) bear a child; (2) terminate a pregnancy prior to fetal viability; or (3) terminate a pregnancy after fetal viability when necessary to protect her life or her health. 
  5. ^ Susan Smalley, Ph.D. (January 10, 2008). "Huffington Post - Eggs And Abortion: Freedom Of Choice". Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  6. ^ "NHS - Euthanasia and assisted suicide - Arguments". Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  7. ^ Serfaty, D. (1999). "Guaranteeing freedom of choice in matters of contraception and abortion in Europe: Some personal remarks". The European journal of contraception & reproductive health care : the official journal of the European Society of Contraception 4 (4): 237–245.  
  8. ^ Menachem Rosensaft (January 15, 2009). "Huffington Post - Even Same-Sex Marriage Is a Basic Civil Right". Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  9. ^ Lauren Hunter and Kristin Van Busum (September 21, 2012). "Huffington Post - Soda "Ban" May Actually Increase Freedom of Choice". Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  10. ^ Baylen Linnekin. " - The Fizzy Math Behind Bloomberg's Soda Ban". Retrieved February 12, 2013. First, the ban would restrict food freedom of choice. 
  11. ^  
  12. ^ Pagoso, Cristobal M.; Dinio, Rosemary P.; Villasis, George A. (1994). Introductory Microeconomics. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 15.  
  13. ^ "Quizlet Microeconomics, Chapter 04 - The Market System". Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  14. ^ Ratner, R. K.; Soman, D.; Zauberman, G.; Ariely, D.; Carmon, Z.; Keller, P. A.; Kim, B. K.; Lin, F.; Malkoc, S.; Small, D. A.; Wertenbroch, K. (2008). "How behavioral decision research can enhance consumer welfare: From freedom of choice to paternalistic intervention". Marketing Letters 19 (3–4): 383.  
  15. ^  
  16. ^ Sebastiano Bavetta, Ph.D., and Pietro Navarra, Ph.D. (2011). "5". Index of Economic Freedom (Report).  
  17. ^ Rick Nauert, Ph.D. "PsychCentral - Does Freedom of Choice Ensure Happiness?". Retrieved February 12, 2013. 
  18. ^  
  19. ^  
  20. ^ Xu, Yongsheng (February 2004). "On ranking linear budget sets in terms of freedom of choice". Social Choice and Welfare (Springer) 22 (1): 281–289.  
  21. ^  
  22. ^  
  23. ^ Sugden, Robert (October 1998). "The metric of opportunity". Economics and Philosophy (Cambridge Journals) 14 (2): 307–337.  
  24. ^ Carter, Ian (February 2004). "Choice, freedom, and freedom of choice". Social Choice and Welfare (Springer) 22 (1): 61–81.  
  25. ^ Botti, Simona; McGill, Ann L. (2006). "When Choosing is Not Deciding: The Effect Of Perceived Responsibility on Satisfaction". Journal of Consumer Research 33: 211–219.  
  26. ^ Markus, H. R.; Schwartz, B. (2010). "Does Choice Mean Freedom and Well‐Being?". Journal of Consumer Research 37 (2): 344.  
  27. ^ Schwartz, Barry (2005). The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less. Harper Perennial. p. 304.  
  28. ^ Schwartz, Barry (July 2005). "The paradox of choice". Talk. TED. Retrieved February 12, 2013. 


See also

A 2010 study by Hazel Rose Markus and Barry Schwartz compiled a list of experiments about freedom of choice and argued that "too much choice can produce a paralyzing uncertainty, depression, and selfishness".[26] Schwartz argues that people frequently experience regret due to opportunity costs for not making an optimal decision and that, in some scenarios, people's overall satisfaction are sometimes higher when a difficult decision is made by another person rather than by themselves, even when the other person's choice is worse. Schwarts had written a book and given speeches criticizing the excess of options in modern society, though acknowledging that "some choice is better than none".[27][28]

A 2006 study by Simona Botti and Ann L. McGill showed that, when subjects were presented with differentiated options and had the freedom to choose between them, their choice enhanced their satisfaction with positive and dissatisfaction with negative outcomes, relative to nonchoosers.[25]

Relationship with happiness

They proved that the cardinality is the only measurement that satisfies these axioms, what they observed to be counter-intuitive and suggestive that one or more axioms should be reformulated. They illustrated this with the example of the option set "to travel by train" or "to travel by car", that should yield more FoC than the option set "to travel by red car" or "to travel by blue car". Some suggestions have been made to solve this problem, by reformulating the axioms, usually including concepts of preferences,[21][22][23] or rejecting the third axiom.[24]

  1. Indifference between no-choice situations. Having only one option amounts to the same FoC, no matter what the option is.
  2. Strict monotonicity. Having two distinct options x and y amounts to more FoC than having only the option x.
  3. Independence. If a situation A has more FoC than B, by adding a new option x to both (not contained in A or B), A will still have more FoC than B.

The axiomatic-deductive approach has been used to address the issue of measuring the amount of freedom of choice (FoC) an individual enjoys.[18] In a 1990 paper,[19][20] Prasanta K. Pattanaik and Yongsheng Xu presented three conditions that a measurement of FoC should satisfy:

Measuring freedom of choice

There is no consensus as to whether an increase in economic freedom of choice leads to an increase in happiness.[16] In one study, the Heritage Foundation's 2011 Index of Economic Freedom report showed a strong correlation between its Index of Economic Freedom and happiness in a country.[17]

Many libertarian thinkers are strong advocates for increasing freedom of choice, as evidenced by the previous quote and Milton Friedman's Free to Choose book and TV series.

Our freedom of choice in a competitive society rests on the fact that, if one person refuses to satisfy our wishes, we can turn to another. But if we face a monopolist we are at his absolute mercy.
— Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom - "Can planning free us from care?"[15]

However, economic freedom to choose ultimately depends upon market competition, since buyers' available options are usually the result of various factors controlled by sellers, such as overall quality of a product or a service and advertisement. In the event that a monopoly exists, the consumer no longer has the freedom to choose to buy from a different producer. As Friedrich Hayek pointed out:


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