World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gaelic football

Article Id: WHEBN0000037688
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gaelic football  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 2010 in Ireland, Hurling, List of stadiums by capacity, Football, Tír Conaill Harps
Collection: Football Codes, Gaelic Football, Gaelic Games, Sports Originating in Ireland, Team Sports
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Gaelic football

Gaelic football
Peil Ghaelach
Aidan O'Mahony of Kerry (left) and Eoin Bradley of Derry (right) in action at Croke Park during the final of the 2009 National Football League
Highest governing body Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)
Nicknames Caid
Football
Gaelic
First played 1885
Clubs More than 2,500
Characteristics
Contact Yes
Team members 15 on each team
Mixed gender Single
Type Outdoor
Equipment Football
Presence
Olympic Former

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil[1] or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic,[2] is an Irish team sport. It is a form of football derived from traditional Irish ball games. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch. The objective of the sport is to score points by passing the ball through the other team's goals (3 points) or a set of two upright posts separated by a crossbar 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) above the ground (1 point).

Players advance the football, a spherical leather ball, up the field with a combination of carrying, bouncing, kicking, hand-passing, and soloing (dropping the ball and then toe-kicking the ball upward into the hands). In the game, two types of scores are possible: points and goals. A point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag. Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, and comprise one goalkeeper, six backs, two midfielders, and six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes.

Gaelic football is one of four sports (collectively referred to as the "hurling and camogie, Gaelic football is one of the few remaining strictly amateur sports in the world, with players, coaches, and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment. Gaelic football is mainly played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in other areas such as Great Britain and North America.

Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of attendance, with the 2011 All-Ireland Senior Championship Final, held at Croke Park, Dublin, drawing an attendance of 82,300 people. Outside of Ireland, football is mainly played amongst members of the Irish diaspora. Gaelic Park in New York City is the largest purpose-built Gaelic sports venue outside of Ireland. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs. The All-Ireland Senior Championship is run as a knock-out competition, with the top two counties meeting in the All-Ireland Football Final, considered the most prestigious event in Gaelic football.

Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a male-only sport; however, the related sport of ladies' Gaelic football is governed by the Ladies' Gaelic Football Association. Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules football, a hybrid sport, and a series of Test matches has been held regularly since 1998.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Rules 2
    • Playing field 2.1
    • Duration 2.2
    • Teams 2.3
    • Positions 2.4
    • Ball 2.5
    • Types of Fouls 2.6
      • Technical fouls 2.6.1
      • Aggressive Fouls 2.6.2
      • Dissent Fouls 2.6.3
    • Scoring 2.7
    • Tackling 2.8
    • Restarting play 2.9
    • Officials 2.10
  • Team of the Century 3
  • Team of the Millennium 4
  • Gaelic football rankings 5
  • Competition structure 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Footnotes 9
  • External links 10

History

Gaelic football was first codified in 1887, although it has links to older varieties of football played in Ireland and known collectively as caid. Consequently, the name caid is used by some people to refer to present day Gaelic football.

The first legal reference of football in Ireland was in 1308, when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan (the New Castle of the Lyons or Newcastle) was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard. A field near Newscastle, Co. Dublin is still known as the football field.[3][4][5] [6] The Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie' — the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports.

By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably. The games had grown in popularity and were widely played. This was due to the patronage of the gentry. Now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games. Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas (Prior, 1997).

The earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted.[7]

However even "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling (a substantial amount at the time) for those caught playing sports. It proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712, about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta".

A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, and 100 years later there were accounts of games played between County sides (Prior, 1997).

By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry, especially the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and; the epic "cross-country game" which lasted the whole of a Sunday (after mass) and was won by taking the ball across a parish boundary. "Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, and carrying the ball were all allowed.

During the 1860s and 1870s, Rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby, and the rules of the (English) Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon, even in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which even allowed tripping. Association football started to take hold, especially in Ulster, in the 1880s.

Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, and the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules which was adapted by other clubs in the city. Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst shape at the time of the association's foundation (GAA Museum, 2001).[7]

Irish forms of football were not formally arranged into an organised playing code by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) until 1887. The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" (particularly English) imports. The first Gaelic football rules, showing the influence of hurling and a desire to differentiate from association football – for example in their lack of an offside rule — were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February 1887. The rules of the aforementioned Commercials Club became the basis for these official (Gaelic Football) rules who, unsurprisingly, won the inaugural All-Ireland Senior Football Final (representing County Limerick)[8]

On Bloody Sunday in 1920, during the Anglo-Irish War, a football match at Croke Park was attacked by British forces. 14 people were killed and 65 were injured. Among the dead was Tipperary footballer Michael Hogan, for whom the Hogan Stand at Croke Park (completed in 1924) was named.

Ladies' Gaelic football has become increasingly popular with women since the 1970s.

The relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football and the question of whether they have shared origins is a matter of historical controversy. Games are held between an Irish representative team and an Australian team, under compromise rules known as international rules football.

Rules

Playing field

Diagram of a Gaelic football pitch

A Gaelic pitch is similar in some respects to a

  • Rules
  • Official GAA website

External links

  1. ^ Ireland, T.E.C. (2000). Irish-English/English-Irish Easy Reference Dictionary. Roberts Rinehart. p. 197.  
  2. ^ The sport is also sometimes referred to in Dublin as "Gah": see Kelly, Fiach (30 June 2008). "Plenty to give out about for the Dubs". Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 September 2009. ; "The Biggest Traditional Irish Sports". Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
  3. ^ "Irish Gaelic Football". Accessed 19 September 2011.
  4. ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. p. 238. 
  5. ^ Corry, Eoghan (210). The History of Gaelic Football. Gill & MacMillan Ireland. p. 16.  
  6. ^ Mahon, Jack (2001). A History of Gaelic Football. Gill &MacMillan.  
  7. ^ a b The History of Gaelic Football and the Gaelic Athletic Association
  8. ^ 8 pupil SEN*
  9. ^ "GAA pitch size". BBC News. 11 October 2005. Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  10. ^ GAA Official Guide – Part 2.  
  11. ^ Rules of the Game
  12. ^ "All About Football". Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  13. ^ "OFFICIAL GUIDE – PART 2". GAA Rules 2012, p. 74-81, Rule 5
  14. ^ "GAA pass controversial 'black card' rule".  
  15. ^ "OFFICIAL GUIDE – PART 2". GAA Rules 2012, p. 82-83, Rule 6
  16. ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. p. 238. 
  17. ^ The administrative counties have been rearranged in the 20th century. Northern Ireland's original six counties are now divided into 26 local government districts, while the Republic of Ireland's 26 counties have been redrawn, leading to a modern local governmental unit total of 33. The GAA's 32 counties are mainly named for the administrative counties as they existed when the Association was formed, with some exceptions (such as Derry and Laois). While the former administrative county borders are generally respected, a GAA county may occasionally open its competitions to clubs that are wholly or partly based in neighbouring counties.

Footnotes

  • Jack Mahon, 2001, A History of Gaelic Football Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. (ISBN 0-7171-3279-X)

References

See also

There are also All-Ireland championships for county teams at Junior, Under-21 and Minor levels, and provincial and national club championships, contested by the teams that win their respective county championships.

The secondary competition at inter-county level is the National League. The National Football League is held every spring and groups counties in four divisions according to their relative strength. As at local (county) levels of Gaelic football, the League at national level is less prestigious than the Championship—however, in recent years attendances have grown, as has interest from the public and from players. This is due in part to the 2002 adoption of a February–April timetable, in place of the former November start, as well as the provision of Division 2 final stages. Live matches are aired on the international channel Setanta Sports and the Irish language channel TG4, with highlights shown on RTÉ Two.

In the past, the team winning each provincial championship would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the famed All-Ireland Final to determine the outright winner. A recent (1990s/2000s) re-organisation created a "back door" method of qualifying, with teams knocked out during the provincial rounds of the All-Ireland Championship now acquiring a second chance at glory. Now the four victorious teams at provincial level enter the recently created All-Ireland quarter-finals instead, where they compete against the four remaining teams from the All-Ireland Qualifiers to progress to the All-Ireland semi-finals and then the All-Ireland Final. This re-organisation means that one team may defeat another team in an early stage of the championship, yet be defeated and knocked out of the tournament by the same team at a later stage. It also means a team may be defeated in an early stage of the championship, yet be crowned All-Ireland champions—as Tyrone were in 2005 and 2008.

The level at which county teams compete against each other is referred to as inter-county (i.e. similar to international) A county panel – a team of 15 players, plus a similar number of substitutes – is formed from the best players playing at club level in each county. The most prestigious inter-county competition in Gaelic football is the All-Ireland Championship. The highest level national championship is called the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. Nearly all counties contest this tournament on an annual basis, with crowds of people thronging venues the length and breadth of Ireland – the most famous of these stadiums being Croke Park – to support their local county team, a team comprising players selected from the clubs in that county. These modified knock-out games start as provincial championships contested by counties against other counties in their respective province, the four Irish provinces of Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connacht. The four victors in these then progress automatically to the All-Ireland series.

Though the island of Ireland was GAA counties, most of which are identical in name and extent to the 32 administrative counties on which local government throughout the island was based until the late 20th century.[17] The term "county" is also used for some overseas GAA areas, such as London and New York. Clubs are also located throughout the world, in other parts of the United States, in Britain, in Canada, in Asia, in Australasia and in continental Europe.

Non-adult levels
Name Description
Under-21 Contested by players under the age of 21
Minor Contested by players under the age of 18
Under-age Contested by players of all ages between under-17 and under-6
Adult levels
Name Description
Senior Contested by the top adult teams
Junior Contested by the weak adult teams, often from smaller communities
Intermediate Contested by the remainder of the teams as a link between Senior and Junior

The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parochial basis. Local clubs compete against other clubs in their county with the intention of winning the County Championship at senior, junior or intermediate levels (for adults) or under-21, minor or under-age levels (for children). A club may field more than one team, for example a club may field a team at senior level and a "seconds" team at junior or intermediate level. This format is laid out in the table below:

The main competitions at all levels of Gaelic football are the League and the Championship. Of these it is the Championship (a knock-out tournament) that tends to attain the most prestige.

Gaelic sports at all levels are amateur, in the sense that the athletes – even those playing at elite level – do not receive payment for their performance per se. Easing the strictness with which this is interpreted is advocated by the Gaelic Players Association.

Children participating in a game of Gaelic football

Competition structure

In this exchange-based point system, points are awarded based on the results of National Football League and All-Ireland Senior Football Championship games, with more recent results and more significant matches being more heavily weighted to help reflect the current competitive state of a team. The rankings have been computed based on results from 1 May 1994.

The Gaelic football rankings is an unofficial ranking system for men's county teams in Gaelic football. The county teams are ranked based on their game results, with the most successful teams being ranked highest.

Rankings as of 21st September 2014
Rank Change* Team Points
1 Increase Kerry 103.57
2 Decrease Donegal 99.99
3 Steady Dublin 98.27
4 Steady Mayo 97.81
5 Steady Monaghan 92.60
6 Steady Cork 91.95
7 Steady Armagh 90.93
8 Steady Tyrone 90.50
9 Steady Kildare 88.93
10 Steady Meath 87.31
11 Steady Galway 85.56
12 Steady Derry 85.00
13 Steady Roscommon 84.30
14 Steady Laois 83.57
15 Steady Tipperary 83.18
16 Steady Down 82.14
17 Steady Louth 79.14
18 Steady Cavan 79.08
19 Steady Wexford 76.79
20 Steady Clare 76.04
21 Steady Sligo 75.99
22 Steady Westmeath 74.50
23 Steady Longford 74.17
24 Steady Fermanagh 72.87
25 Steady Limerick 72.62
26 Steady Antrim 70.57
27 Steady Wicklow 70.05
28 Steady Leitrim 69.68
29 Steady Offaly 67.42
30 Steady London 63.68
31 Steady Carlow 63.20
32 Steady Waterford 62.63
33 Steady New York 57.54
*Change from the previous round of games

Gaelic football rankings

Goalkeeper
Dan O'Keeffe
(Kerry)
Right Corner Back Full Back Left Corner Back
Enda Colleran
(Galway)
Joe Keohane
(Kerry)
Seán Flanagan
(Mayo)
Right Half Back Centre Back Left Half Back
Sean Murphy
(Kerry)
J. J. O'Reilly
(Cavan)
Martin O'Connell
(Meath)
Midfield
Mick O'Connell
(Kerry)
Tommy Murphy
(Laois)
Right Half Forward Centre Forward Left Half Forward
Seán O'Neill
(Down)
Sean Purcell
(Galway)
Pat Spillane
(Kerry)
Right Corner Forward Full Forward Left Corner Forward
Mikey Sheehy
(Kerry)
Tommy Langan
(Mayo)
Kevin Heffernan
(Dublin)

The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in 1999 by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in 1884 up to the Millennium year, 2000. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.

Team of the Millennium

Goalkeeper
Dan O'Keeffe
(Kerry)
Right Corner Back Full Back Left Corner Back
Enda Colleran
(Galway)
Paddy O'Brien
(Meath)
Seán Flanagan
(Mayo)
Right Half Back Centre Back Left Half Back
Sean Murphy
(Kerry)
J. J. O'Reilly
(Cavan)
Stephen White
(Louth)
Midfield
Mick O'Connell
(Kerry)
Jack O'Shea
(Kerry)
Right Half Forward Centre Forward Left Half Forward
Seán O'Neill
(Down)
Sean Purcell
(Galway)
Pat Spillane
(Kerry)
Right Corner Forward Full Forward Left Corner Forward
Mikey Sheehy
(Kerry)
Tommy Langan
(Mayo)
Kevin Heffernan
(Dublin)

The Team of the Century was nominated in 1984 by Sunday Independent readers and selected by a panel of experts including journalists and former players.[16] It was chosen as part of the Gaelic Athletic Association's centenary year celebrations. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.

Team of the Century

Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed which has occurred without the referee's knowledge. A linesman/umpire is not permitted to inform the referee of technical fouls such as a "double bounce" or an illegal pick up of the ball. Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee.

The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: wide (spread both arms), a 45m kick (raise one arm), a point (wave white flag), square ball (cross arms) or a goal (wave green flag). A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.

The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time (signalled to him by the referee) and the players substituted using an electronic board.

Linesmen are responsible for indicating the direction of line balls to the referee.

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.

  • The referee
  • Two linesmen
  • Sideline official/Standby linesman (often referred to as "fourth official"; inter-county games only)
  • Four umpires (two at each goal)

A football match is overseen by up to eight officials:

Officials

  • A match begins with the referee throwing the ball up between the four mid fielders.
  • After an attacker has put the ball wide of the goals, scored a point or a goal, the goalkeeper may take a kick out from the ground at the 13m line. All players must be beyond the 20m line.
  • After a defender has put the ball wide of the goals, an attacker may take a "45" from the ground on the 45m line, level with where the ball went wide.
  • After a player has put the ball over the sideline, the other team may take a sideline kick at the point where the ball left the pitch. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands. The player who is taking the sideline kick must not pass the boundary line while taking.
  • After a player has committed a foul, the other team may take a free kick (usually shortened to "free" in reports/commentaries) at the point where the foul was committed. It may be kicked from the ground or the hands.
  • If a player has been fouled while passing the ball, the free may be taken from the point where the ball landed.
  • After a defender has committed a foul inside the large rectangle, the other team may take a penalty kick from the ground from the centre of the 11m line. Only the goalkeeper may guard the goals.
  • If many players are struggling for the ball and it is not clear who was fouled first, the referee may choose to throw the ball up between two opposing players.

Restarting play

  • Blocking a shot with the foot
  • Pulling an opponent's jersey
  • Pushing an opponent
  • Sliding tackles
  • Striking an opponent
  • Touching the goalkeeper when he/she is inside the small rectangle
  • Tripping
  • Using both hands to tackle
  • Wrestling the ball from an opponent's hands

Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:

The level of tackling allowed is more robust than in association football, but less than rugby.

Tackling

If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire. A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed whilst striking the ball. If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal, worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it. However, a player can strike the ball into the net with a closed fist if the ball was played to him by another player or came in contact with the post/crossbar/ground prior to connection. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total. To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points. For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0–21 Team B 4–8, Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points (4 times 3, plus 8).

A player from a Canada GAA club shoots for goal

Scoring

  • To challenge the authority of a Referee, Umpire, Linesman or Sideline Official
  • To fail to comply with a Referee’s instruction to use a mouth guard.
  • To refuse to leave the field of play, on the instruction of the Referee, for attention, after an injury involving bleeding.
  • To show dissent with the Referee’s decision to award a free kick to the opposing team.
  • To refuse to leave the field of play when ordered off (Red Card) or rejoin the game after being ordered off.
  • A team or player(s) leaving the field without the Referee’s permission or refusing to continue playing[15]

A dissent foul is a foul where a player fails to comply with the officials' judgment and/or instructions. The player can be cautioned (shown a yellow card), ordered off the pitch without a substitute (red card), the free kick placement moved 13m further down-field, or in certain circumstances, the game can be terminated. The following are considered dissent fouls:

Dissent Fouls

Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee. The player can be cautioned (shown a yellow card), ordered off the pitch without a substitute (red card),[13] or (beginning 1 January 2014) ordered off the pitch with a substitution (Black Card).[14]

Aggressive Fouls

  • Bouncing the ball twice in a row (It may be soloed continuously)
  • Changing hands: Throwing the ball from your right-hand to left or vice-versa (legal in the ladies' game)
  • Going four steps without releasing, bouncing or soloing the ball (soloing involves kicking the ball into one's own hands)[12]
  • Hand passing a goal. To hand pass a ball with an open palm there must be a clear striking action (the ball may be punched over the bar from up in the air, but not into the goal).
  • Picking the ball directly off the ground (it must be scooped up into the hands by the foot). However in ladies' Gaelic football the ball may be picked up directly.
  • Square ball is an often controversial rule: If, at the moment the ball enters the small square, there is already an attacking player inside the small rectangle, then a free out is awarded. As of 2012 square balls are only counted if the player is inside the square when the ball is kicked from a free or set piece. An opposing player is allowed in the square during open play.
  • Throwing the ball (it may be "hand-passed" by striking with the fist).

The following are considered technical fouls ("fouling the ball"):

Technical fouls

There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.

Types of Fouls

The game is played with a round leather football made of 18 stitched leather panels, similar in appearance to a traditional volleyball (but larger), with a circumference of 69–74 cm (27–29 in), weighing between 370–425 g (13.1–15.0 oz) when dry.[11] It may be kicked or hand passed. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.

The ball, made by Irish company O'Neills, being used for a Gaelic football match.

Ball

Positions

Teams consist of fifteen players[10] (a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward) plus up to fifteen substitutes, of which five may be used. Each player is numbered 1–15, starting with the goalkeeper, who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates. Up to fifteen substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper.

Teams

The majority of adult football and all minor and under-21 matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games which last for 70 minutes (two halves of 35 minutes). Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time (two halves of 10 minutes). Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases. Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes.

Duration

[9]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.