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Lakshminath Bezbaroa

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Lakshminath Bezbaroa

Lakshminath Bezbaroa
Born November, 1868 (?)
Aahatguri, Nagaon, Assam, India
Died 26 March 1938
Dibrugarh, Assam, India
Ethnicity Assamese
Occupation Writer, Novelist, Dramatist, Poet, Editor, Satirist, Timber-trading
Spouse(s) Pragyasundari Devi

Lakshminath Bezbaroa (Assamese: লক্ষ্মীনাথ বেজবৰুৱা, Hindi: लक्ष्मीनाथ बेजबरुवा; 1868–1938) was a great Assamese personality and celebrated pioneer of modern Assamese literature. He was one of the literary stalwarts of the Jonaki Era, the age of romanticism in Assamese literature when through his essays, plays, fiction, poetry and satires, he gave a new impetus to the then stagnating Assamese literary caravan.[1]

As a sensitive artist, he responded to the prevailing social environment through his beautifully timed satirical works to bring and sustain positive changes to the former. His creative literature reflected the deeper urges of the people of Assam.[2]

Confusion Regarding Date of Birth

There is a confusion regarding the date of birth of Lakshminath Bezbaroa and also a story behind it as told by Bezbaroa himself. In the first line of the first paragraph of the first chapter of his auto-biography Mor Jiban Sowaran (মোৰ জীৱন সোঁৱৰণ),Lakshminath Bezbaroa confirms outright his inability to remember his exact date of birth that his parents used to tell him. But later when he grew young and required to put his date of birth for essential records, he invented a date for the purpose viz."1868 AD , November". He writes that he would like to offer this piece of information to anyone interested knowing about his date of birth although he is unsure whether that information in any way would going to affect the balance-sheet of anyone's life. In the next line he explicitly writes that approximately translates into
"I am not convinced that on hearing,knowing or composing the news of my incarnation to destroy the "Annasur" (Food Devil) in that given year, perhaps two or four years earlier or later for that matter, the mankind shall be at any loss or profit or concede any damage."

In the very next paragraph, he went on describing in detail how and why the Bundle of Birth-Charts,kept religiously and secretly away from the kids by his parents, which contained the one, the his one he knew for certain during his childhood, was lost.

Lakshminath Bezbaroa has however confirmed in his auto-biography that he was born in the autumn on a full-moon night, on which "Lakhmi Puja" ( A Hindu festival of worship of Goddess Lakhmi) is celebrated in India, and to mark the coincidence, he was named by his parents as "Lakshminath" ( A name for Vishnu, the Hindu God and husband of Goddess Lakhmi). This autumn-festival celebrated in the full-moon of Ashvin usually falls in the month of October in any year. As per NASA web-site data from there was only one full-moon day in the month of November, 1868 and that was on 30th[3] but that was not the day of celebration of Lakshmi puja in that year. Presently, the Assam Sahitya Sabha has settled on a date "14th October,1864", that was a full-moon night of Lakshmi Puja in India,for his date of birth.

Early life

Lakshminath Bezbaroa was born on a boat, as it stood moored in a sand bank of the river Brahmaputra at Ahatguri, near Nagaon on a Lakshmi Purnima night, in November 1868. His father Dinanath Bezbaroa, a senior official with the British government, was in the process of moving to Barpeta due to official transfer.[4]

Lakshminath Bezbaroa spent his childhood in different places of the Assam. His father brought his family with him from Barpeta to Tezpur. From Tezpur they shifted to North Lakhimpur. In between the family stayed for a brief while at Garchati and finally they settled in Sibsagar.[4]


Lakshminath Bezbaroa received his early education Sibsagar Govt. High School at Sibsagar. Thereafter he graduated from the City College in Calcutta. Then he took his M.A. and B.L. degrees from the University of Calcutta.[5]

Personal life

Lakshminath Bezburua married Pragyasundari Devi, she is a niece of the poet Rabindranath Tagore.[6]


Lakshminath Bezbaroa is honoured by a unique title on 29 December 1931, 'Rasaraj' (ৰসৰাজ) by Asam Sahitya Sabha in 1931 at Sivasagar session. In the felicitation letter by Asam Sahitya Sabha, the word 'Sahityarathi' was used for the first time for Bezbaroa. Rasaraj meaning 'The King of Humour' in Assamese literature for his ever-popular satirical writings under the pen-name "Kripaabor Borbaruah", a pseudo-personality that he created and portrayed as the lead character in such works. He is also known in Assamese literary society as the Sahityarathi (সাহিত্যৰথী) which means "Charioteer of Literature" for his expertise in all branches of literature. In the felicitation letter by Asam Sahitya Sabha, the word 'Sahityarathi' was used for the first time for Bezbaroa.[7]

He presided over the All-Assam Students' Conference at Guwahati in 1921.[8]

He presided over the 7th annual session of Assam Sahitya Sabha held at Guwahati in 1924.[9]

He died in Dibrugarh on March 26 at the age of seventy only a few months after he went back to live in Assam permanently. The Asom Sahitya Sabha annually observes this day Sahitya Divas.[4]

Literary career

Lakshminath Bezbaroa started his literary career with a farce, "Litikai" serialized from the first issue of Jonaki magazine. He wrote 8 plays, 4 farces, 3 historical works, 1 act drama, 3 biographies and 2 autobiographies. He also wrote for the children. He collected and compiled folk tales of Assam (Xadhukotha) and added on his own to the basket, quite a few new tales to the benefit of nurturing parents and baby-sitters. Lakshminath Bezbaroa was the pioneer short story writer in Assam.[1] His short stories covered the different features from the Assamese society but with humorous sentiment. Rasaraj Bezbaroa was earmarked as a patriotic playwright while he composed three historical plays, namely- Chakradhaj Singha, Joymoti Konwori and Belimaar.

O Mur Apunar Dex,a patriotic song composed by him is the state anthem of Assam.[10]

Literary works

Poetry Collection:[7]

  • Kodam Koli (কদম কলি) (1913)
  • Podum Koli (পদুম কলি) (1968)


  • Podum Kunwari (পদুম কুৱঁৰী)

Short Story Collection:

  • Surabhi (সুৰভি)(Short Stories, 1909)
  • Xadhukathaar Kuki (সাধুকথাৰ কুঁকি)(Short Stories, 1912)
  • Jonbiri (জোনবিৰি)(Short Stories, 1913)
  • Kehokali (কেহোঁকলি)

Children's literature:

  • Junuka (জুনুকা) (Folk tales, 1910)
  • Burhi aair xadhu (বুঢ়ী আইৰ সাধু)(Folk tales, 1911)
  • Kokadeuta aaru nati lora (ককাদেউতা আৰু নাতি-ল'ৰা)(Folk tales, 1912)
  • Baakhar (বাখৰ)

Collection of satire essays:[7]

  • Kripabor Barbaruar Kaakotor Topola (কৃপাবৰ বৰবৰুৱাৰ কাকতৰ টোপোলা) (1904)
  • Kripabor Barbaruar Obhotani (কৃপাবৰ বৰবৰুৱাৰ ওভোতনি)(1909)
  • Barbaruar Bhabar Burburani (বৰবৰুৱাৰ ভাবৰ বুৰবুৰণি)
  • Barbaruar Bulani (বৰবৰুৱাৰ বুলনি)

Comic Plays:

  • Litikai (লিটিকাই)
  • Nomal (নোমল)
  • Paachani (পাচনি)
  • Chikarpati Nikarpati (চিকৰপতি নিকৰপতি)


  • Joymoti Konwari (জয়মতী কুঁৱৰী)(1915)
  • Chakradhwaj Singha (চক্ৰধ্বজ সিংহ)(1915)
  • Belimaar (বেলিমাৰ)(1915)
  • Litikai (লিটিকাই) (1890)
  • Chikarpati-Nikarpati (চিকাৰপতি-নিকাৰপতি) (1913)
  • Nomal (নোমল) (1913)
  • Pachoni (পাচনৈ) (1913)


  • Dinanath Bejbaruar Xankshipta Jiban Charit (দীননাথ বেজবৰুৱাৰ সংক্ষিপ্ত জীৱন চৰিত)
  • Sri Sri Shankardev (শ্ৰীশ্ৰীশংকৰদেৱ)
  • Mahapurush Sri Sankardev Aru Madhabdev (মহাপুৰুষ শ্ৰীশংকৰদেৱ আৰু শ্রীমাধৱদেৱ)


  • Mor Jiban Sowaran (মোৰ জীৱন সোঁৱৰণ)[11]
  • Patralekha, Dinalekha (পত্ৰলেখা, দিনলেখা)

English Books:

  • History of Vaishnavism in India
  • Rasalila of Sri Krishna (The Baroda Lectures, 1934)
  • The Religion of Love and Devotion (1968), including the Boroda lectures and two other essays.


  • Kaamat Kritatwa Labhibar Xanket (কামত কৃতিত্ব লভিবৰ সংকেত)
  • Bhagawat Katha (ভাগৱত কথা)
  • Bharatbarshar Buranji (ভাৰতবৰ্ষৰ বুৰঞ্জী)
  • Tatwa Katha (তত্ত্ব কথা)
  • Sri Krishnakatha (শ্ৰীকৃষ্ণকথা)
  • Axomiya Bhaxa Aru Xahitya (অসমীয়া ভাষা আৰু সাহিত্য)


  • Bahi (বাঁহী)

See also


External links

  • Sahityarathi Lakshminath Bezbaroa Diaries at
  • Lakshminath Bezbaroa at
  • Lakshminath Bezbaroa's writing, at website.
  • Among the Luminaries in Assam: A Study of Assamese Biography By Anjali Sarma.
  • The Telegraph (Calcutta), Published on April 5, 2011.
  • Few poems in Assamese at website.
  • Chakradhaj Singha a play by Lakshminath Bezbaroa.
  • HISTORY OF VAISHNAVISM IN INDIA, an article by Lakshminath Bezbaroa.
  • Biography of Lakshminath Bezbaroa at

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