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Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic

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Title: Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic  
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Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Ancient Rome
Roman Constitution
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The legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic were political institutions in the ancient Roman Republic. According to the contemporary historian Polybius, it was the people (and thus the assemblies) who had the final say regarding the election of magistrates, the enactment of new statutes, the carrying out of capital punishment, the declaration of war and peace, and the creation (or dissolution) of alliances. Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the people (and thus the assemblies) held the ultimate source of sovereignty.

Since the Romans used a form of direct democracy, citizens, and not elected representatives, voted before each assembly. As such, the citizen-electors had no power, other than the power to cast a vote. Each assembly was presided over by a single Roman Magistrate, and as such, it was the presiding magistrate who made all decisions on matters of procedure and legality. Ultimately, the presiding magistrate's power over the assembly was nearly absolute. The only check on that power came in the form of vetoes handed down by other magistrates.

In the Roman system of direct democracy, two primary types of gatherings were used to vote on legislative, electoral, and judicial matters. The first was the Assembly (comitia), which was a gathering that was deemed to represent the entire Roman people, even if it did not contain all of the Roman citizens or, like the comitia curiata, excluded a particular class of Roman citizens (the plebs). The second was the Council (concilium), which was a gathering of citizens of a specific class. In contrast, the Convention was an unofficial forum for communication. Conventions were simply forums where Romans met for specific unofficial purposes, such as, for example, to hear a political speech. Voters always assembled first into Conventions to hear debates and conduct other business before voting, and then into Assemblies or Councils to actually vote.


  • Assembly procedure 1
  • Assembly of the Curia 2
  • Assembly of the Centuries 3
  • Assembly of the Tribes 4
  • Plebeian Council 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10

Assembly procedure

Growth of the city region during the kingdom

In addition to the presiding magistrate, several additional magistrates were often present to act as assistants.[1] There were also religious officials either in attendance or on-call, who would be available to help interpret any signs from the gods (omens).[1] On several known occasions, presiding magistrates used the claim of unfavorable omens as an excuse to suspend a session that was not going the way they wanted.[2] Any decision made by a presiding magistrate could be vetoed by a magistrate known as a Plebeian Tribune. In addition, decisions made by presiding magistrates could also be vetoed by higher-ranking magistrates.

On the day of the vote, the electors first assembled into their conventions for debate and campaigning.[3] In the Conventions, the electors were not sorted into their respective units (curia, centuries or tribes). Speeches from private citizens were only heard if the issue to be voted upon was a legislative or judicial matter.[4] If the purpose of the ultimate vote was for an election, no speeches from private citizens were heard, and instead, the candidates for office used the Convention to campaign.[5] During the Convention, the bill to be voted upon was read to the assembly by an officer known as a "Herald". Then, if the assembly was composed of Tribes, the order of the vote had to be determined. A Plebeian Tribune could use his veto against pending legislation until the point when the order of the vote was determined.[6]

The electors were then told to break up the Convention and assemble into the formal Assembly or Council. The electors voted by placing a pebble or written ballot into an appropriate jar.[3][7] The baskets that held the votes were watched by specific officers, who then counted the ballots, and reported the results to the presiding magistrate. The majority of votes in any Curia, Tribe, or Century decided how that Curia, Tribe, or Century voted. Each Curia, Tribe, or Century received one vote, regardless of how many electors each Tribe or Century held. Once a majority of Curiae, Tribes, or Centuries voted in the same way on a given measure, the voting ended, and the matter was decided.[8]

Assembly of the Curia

The Curiate Assembly (comitia curiata) was the principal assembly during the first two decades of the Patrician (aristocratic) clans.[11] The Curiae assembled into the Curiate Assembly, for legislative, electoral, and judicial purposes. The Curiate Assembly passed laws, elected Consuls (the only elected magistrates at the time),[12] and tried judicial cases. Consuls always presided over the assembly.[13]

Shortly after the founding of the republic, most of the powers of the Curiate Assembly were transferred to the

  • Cicero's De Re Publica, Book Two
  • Rome at the End of the Punic Wars: An Analysis of the Roman Government; by Polybius
  • Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and their Decline, by Montesquieu
  • The Roman Constitution to the Time of Cicero
  • What a Terrorist Incident in Ancient Rome Can Teach Us

External links

  • Cambridge Ancient History, Volumes 9–13.
  • Cameron, A. The Later Roman Empire, (Fontana Press, 1993).
  • Crawford, M. The Roman Republic, (Fontana Press, 1978).
  • Gruen, E. S. "The Last Generation of the Roman Republic" (U California Press, 1974)
  • Ihne, Wilhelm. Researches Into the History of the Roman Constitution. William Pickering. 1853.
  • Johnston, Harold Whetstone. Orations and Letters of Cicero: With Historical Introduction, An Outline of the Roman Constitution, Notes, Vocabulary and Index. Scott, Foresman and Company. 1891.
  • Millar, F. The Emperor in the Roman World, (Duckworth, 1977, 1992).
  • Mommsen, Theodor. Roman Constitutional Law. 1871-1888
  • Polybius. The Histories
  • Tighe, Ambrose. The Development of the Roman Constitution. D. Apple & Co. 1886.
  • Von Fritz, Kurt. The Theory of the Mixed Constitution in Antiquity. Columbia University Press, New York. 1975.

Further reading

  • Abbott, Frank Frost (1901). A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions. Elibron Classics.  
  • Byrd, Robert (1995). The Senate of the Roman Republic. US Government Printing Office Senate Document 103–23. 
  • Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1841). The Political Works of Marcus Tullius Cicero: Comprising his Treatise on the Commonwealth; and his Treatise on the Laws. Vol. 1 (Translated from the original, with Dissertations and Notes in Two Volumes By Francis Barham, Esq ed.). London: Edmund Spettigue. 
  • Holland, Tom (2005). Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic. Random House Books.  
  • Lintott, Andrew (1999). The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford University Press.  
  • Polybius (1823). The General History of Polybius: Translated from the Greek. Vol. 2 (Fifth ed.). Oxford: Printed by W. Baxter. 
  • Taylor, Lily Ross (1966). Roman Voting Assemblies: From the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar. The University of Michigan Press.  
  • McCullough, Colleen (1990). The First Man in Rome. Avon Books.  


  1. ^ a b Taylor, 63
  2. ^ Taylor, 96
  3. ^ a b Taylor, 2
  4. ^ Lintott, 45
  5. ^ Taylor, 16
  6. ^ Lintott, 46
  7. ^ Lintott, 46–47
  8. ^ a b Taylor, 40
  9. ^ a b c d Byrd, 33
  10. ^ a b c d e f Taylor, 3–4
  11. ^ a b Abbott, 250
  12. ^ a b Abbott, 253
  13. ^ Holland, 5
  14. ^ McCullough, 943
  15. ^ a b c Abbott, 257
  16. ^ a b Taylor, 85
  17. ^ Taylor, 87
  18. ^ a b Abbott, 21
  19. ^ a b c Taylor, 86
  20. ^ a b c Abbott, 75
  21. ^ Abbott, 107
  22. ^ Taylor, 7
  23. ^ a b c d Abbott, 261
  24. ^ Lintott, 51
  25. ^ Taylor, 77
  26. ^ Taylor, 76
  27. ^ a b Abbott, 196
  28. ^ Byrd, 31
  29. ^ Abbott, 51


See also

The Plebeian Council elected two 'Plebeian Magistrates', the Plebeian Tribunes and the Plebeian Aediles.[27] Usually the Plebeian Tribune presided over the assembly, although the Plebeian Aedile sometimes did as well. Originally, statutes passed by the Plebeian Council ("Plebiscites") only applied to Plebeians.[28] However, in 449 BC, a statute of an Assembly was passed which gave Plebiscites the full force of law over all Romans (Plebeians and Patricians).[29] It was not until 287 BC, however, that the last mechanism which allowed the Roman Senate to veto acts of the Plebeian Council was revoked. After this point, almost all domestic legislation came out of the Plebeian Council.

[23] According to legend, the

The Plebeian Council (concilium plebis) was the principal popular gathering of the Plebeians (commoners) could pass laws, elect magistrates, and try judicial cases. This council had no political power until the offices of Plebeian Tribune and Plebeian Aedile were created in 494 BC, due to the Plebeian Secession that year.[23]

Plebeian Council

The thirty-five Tribes were not ethnic or kinship groups, but rather a generic division into which Roman citizens were distributed. When the Tribes were created the divisions were geographical, similar to modern Parliamentary constituencies. However, since one joined the same Tribe that one's father belonged to, the geographical distinctions were eventually lost.[24] The order that the 35 Tribes voted in was selected randomly by lot. The order was not chosen at once, and after each Tribe had voted, a lot was used to determine which Tribe should vote next.[25] The first Tribe selected was usually the most important Tribe, because it often decided the matter. It was believed that the order of the lot was chosen by the Gods, and thus, that the position held by the early voting Tribes was the position of the Gods.[26] Once a majority of Tribes had voted the same way, voting ended.[8]

The Century Assembly (comitia Consul) of the comitia populi tributa (Tribal Assembly The

Assembly of the Tribes

During his Roman Senate by the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, after the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC.[21]

[19] This mass disenfranchisement of most of the soldiers in the army played an important role in the chaos that led to the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC.[19]) of the unarmed adjunct class. This Century was the only Century composed of soldiers who had no property, and since it was always the last Century to vote, it never had any real influence on elections. In 107 BC, in response to high unemployment and a severe manpower shortage in the army, the general and Consul proletarii The lowest ranking Century in the Century Assembly was the fifth Century (called the

Under the Servian Organization, the assembly was so aristocratic that the officer class and the first class of enlisted soldiers controlled enough Centuries for an outright majority. In 241 BC, this assembly was reorganized in order to give more weight to the lower ranking Centuries, and thus make the assembly less aristocratic.[20] Under the old system, there were a total of 193 Centuries, while under the new system, there were a total of 373 Centuries.[20] Now, majorities usually could not be reached until the third class of enlisted Centuries had begun voting.[20]

Chart Showing the Checks and Balances of the Constitution of the Roman Republic

When a measure received a majority of the vote, the voting ended, and as such, many lower ranking Centuries rarely if ever had a chance to actually vote. [19] During a vote, all of the Centuries of one class had to vote before the Centuries of the next lower class could vote.[18] The unarmed soldiers were divided into the final five Centuries.[17] The enlisted class was grouped into five separate property classes, for a total of 170 Centuries.[16] The officer class was grouped into eighteen Centuries.[16] The Century Assembly was supposedly founded by the legendary

The president of the Century Assembly was usually a Consul (although sometimes a Praetor). Only Consuls (the highest-ranking of all Roman Magistrates) could preside over the Century Assembly during elections because the higher-ranking Consuls were always elected together with the lower-ranking Praetors. Once every five years, after the new Consuls for the year took office, they presided over the Century Assembly as it elected the two Censors. [15].physical boundary of the city of Rome While the voters in this assembly wore white undecorated togas and were unarmed, while taking part in the Assembly they were classified as soldiers, and as such they could not meet inside of the [10] In addition, the Century Assembly served as the highest court of appeal in certain judicial cases, and ratified the results of the Census.[15] The Century Assembly could also pass a statute that granted constitutional command authority to Consuls and Praetors, and Censorial powers to Censors.[15].Censors and Praetors, Consuls: Roman Magistrates The Roman army was divided into units called "Centuries", and these gathered into the Century Assembly for legislative, electoral, and judicial purposes. However, since the number of centuries in each class was fixed, centuries could contain far more than 100 men. Only this assembly could declare war or elect the highest-ranking [14] (the highest ranking Roman Magistrate) or a Praetor (the second-highest ranking Roman Magistrate). The Tribal Assembly elected three different magistrates: Quaestors, Curule Aediles, and Military Tribunes.[22] The Tribal Assembly also had the power to try judicial cases.[23]

Roman Dictator Sulla, who attempted to increase the power of the Century Assembly at the expense of the Tribal Assembly

Assembly of the Centuries

. comitia calata but instead the comitia curiata However, this might not have been the [10]) as his son and heir.Augustus Roman emperor, and with it Caesar's adoption of his nephew Gaius Octavian (the future Julius Caesar inaugurated certain priests, and transferred citizens from Patrician class to Plebeian class (or vice versa). In 44 BC, for example, it ratified the will of [9] it witnessed wills and ratified adoptions,[9],Pontifex Maximus Under the presidency of the [12] in 27 BC.Roman Republic the Curiate Assembly actually retained jurisdiction over clan matters even after the fall of the [11]

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