World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mannheim school

Article Id: WHEBN0000310723
Reproduction Date:

Title: Mannheim school  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ignaz Fränzl, Classical period (music), Franz Xaver Richter, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mannheim school
Collection: Classical Period (Music), Composition Schools, German Music
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Mannheim school

The courtyard of the palace at Mannheim

Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers who wrote such music for the orchestra of Mannheim and others. The father of the school is considered to be Czech composer Jan Václav Antonín Stamic, generally known as Johann Stamitz.


  • History 1
  • Composers 2
  • Musical innovations 3
  • Recordings 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The court of the Elector Charles III Philip moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720, already employing an orchestra larger than that of any of the surrounding states. The orchestra grew even further in the following decades and came to include some of the best virtuosi of the time. Under the guidance of Kapellmeister Carlo Grua, the court hired such talents as Johann Stamitz, who is generally considered to be the founder of the Mannheim school, in 1741/42, and he became its director in 1750.

The most notable of the revolutionary techniques of the Mannheim orchestra were its more independent treatment of the wind instruments, and its famous whole-orchestra crescendo.


Members of the Mannheim school included Johann Stamitz, Franz Xaver Richter, Carl Stamitz, Franz Ignaz Beck, Ignaz Fränzl, and Christian Cannabich, and it had a very direct influence on many major symphonists of the time, including Joseph Haydn and Leopold Hofmann. (Cannabich, one of the directors of the orchestra after the death of J. Stamitz, was also a good friend of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from the latter's visit to Mannheim in 1777 onwards.)

Johann Stamitz visited Paris, and the Mannheim school had an influence on the Concert Spirituel Sacred Concert since 1754. When Joseph Legros took over the Parisian concert series Concert Spirituel, the relationship with the Mannheim School flourished and the music of Haydn became extremely popular in Paris. Prominent concerts in Paris during the 1770s were the Concert de la Loge Olympique (Concert of the Olympic Lodge) and the Concert des Amateurs (Concert for the Fans) which may have been part of the Concert Spirituel.[1]

Claude-François-Marie Rigolet (the Comte d'Ogny) commissioned Joseph Haydn's six "Chevalier de Saint-Georges conducted for their world premiere. The influence of the Mannheim school is evident in these symphonies.

Musical innovations

Mannheim Rocket at the beginning of the 4th movement of Mozart's Symphony No. 40

Composers of the Mannheim school introduced a number of novel ideas into the orchestral music of their day: sudden crescendos – the Mannheim Crescendo (a crescendo developed via the whole orchestra) – and diminuendos; crescendos with piano releases; the Mannheim Rocket (a swiftly ascending passage typically having a rising arpeggiated melodic line together with a crescendo); the Mannheim Roller (an extended crescendo passage typically having a rising melodic line over an ostinato bass line); the Mannheim Sigh (a mannered treatment of the Baroque practice of putting more weight on the first of two notes in descending pairs of slurred notes); the Mannheim Birds (imitation of birds chirping in solo passages); the Mannheim Climax (a high-energy section of music where all instruments drop out except for the strings, usually preceded by a Mannheim Crescendo); and the Grand Pause where the playing stops for a moment, resulting in total silence, only to restart vigorously. The Mannheim Rocket can be a rapidly ascending broken chord from the lowest range of the bass line to the very top of the soprano line. Its influence can be found at the beginning of the 4th movement of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 as well as the very start of Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 1 in F minor, Op. 2, No. 1.


  • Clarinet Concertos by The Mannheim School[2]
Seven concertos by Franz Tausch, Peter Winter; Karl Schlechta, clarinet and basset horn; Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester, Jiří Malát, conductor. Arte Nova 74321 37327 2, 5 discs
  • Many of the Mannheim symphonists have now been recorded on Chandos and the Naxos labels in various numbers of volumes per composer. J.Stamitz 2 volumes, Richter 2 Volumes, Carl Stamitz, Cannabich 2 Volumes, etc.
  • Conductor Simon Murphy has made several recordings of the very first Mannheim School symphonies for PentaTone Classics, including early four part, string symphonies by J. Stamitz and F.X. Richter.


  1. ^ Bernard Harrison "Haydn The Paris Symphonies" Cambridge University Press 1998 ISBN 0-521-47164-8
  2. ^ Clarinet Concertos by The Mannheim School CD review by Raymond Tuttle at

External links

  • History of the Mannheim school
  • Gerald Drebes, Die "Mannheimer Schule" - ein Zentrum der vorklassischen Musik und Mozart [2]
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.