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Muktikā

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Subject: Upanishads, Mukhya Upanishads, Prashna Upanishad, Gopala Tapani Upanishad, Atharvasiras Upanishsad
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Muktikā

The Muktikā (Sanskrit: "deliverance") refers to the canon of 108 Upaniṣads. The date of composition of each is unknown, with the oldest dated to be before 500 BCE and the youngest composed sometime in the medieval era.[1] The older texts were transmitted orally, from generation to generation, in ancient India. The written form of the canon predates the 1656 record of the canon by Dara Shikoh.

Contents

  • The Canon 1
  • Transmission 2
  • Categories 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

The Canon

The canon is part of a dialogue between Rama and Hanuman. Rama proposes to teach Vedanta, saying "Even by reading one verse of them [any Upanishad] with devotion, one gets the status of union with me, hard to get even by sages." Hanuman enquires about the different kinds of "liberation" (Mukti, hence the name of the Upanishad), to which Rama answers that "the only real type [of liberation] is Kaivalya".

The list of 108 Upanishads is introduced in verses 26-29:

But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha got? The Mandukya is enough; if knowledge is not got from it, then study the Ten Upanishads. Getting knowledge very soon, you will reach my abode. If certainty is not got even then, study the 32 Upanishads and stop. If desiring Moksha without the body, read the 108 Upanishads. Hear their order. (trans. Warrier)

Some scholars list ten as principal – the Mukhya Upanishads, while most consider twelve or thirteen as principal, most important Upanishads (highlighted).[2][3][4]

The list of 108 names is given in verses 30-39. They are as follows:

  1. Isha Upanishad
  2. Kena Upanishad
  3. Katha Upanishad
  4. Prashna Upanishad
  5. Mundaka Upanishad
  6. Mandukya Upanishad
  7. Taittiriya Upanishad
  8. Aitareya Upanishad
  9. Chandogya Upanishad
  10. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
  11. Brahma Upanishad
  12. Kaivalya Upanishad
  13. Jabalopanishad
  14. Shvetashvatara Upanishad
  15. Hamsopanishad
  16. Aruneya Upanishad
  17. Garbhopanishad
  18. Narayanopanishad
  19. Paramahamsopanishad
  20. Amritabindu Upanishad
  21. Nada Bindu Upanishad
  22. Siropanishad
  23. Atharvashikha Upanishad
  24. Maitrayaniya Upanishad
  25. Kaushitaki Upanishad
  26. Brihajjabala Upanishad
  27. Nrisimha-tapaniya Upanishad
  28. Kalagni Rudra Upanishad
  29. Maitreyy-upanishad
  30. Subalopanishad
  31. Kshurikopanishad
  32. Mantrikopanishad
  33. Sarva-saropanishad
  34. Niralambopanishad
  35. Suka-rahasyopanishad
  36. Vajra-sucikopanishad
  37. Tejobindu Upanishad
  38. Nada-bindupanishad
  39. Dhyana-bindupanishad
  40. Brahmavidya Upanishad
  41. Yogatattva Upanishad
  42. Atmabodha Upanishad
  43. Narada-parivrajakopanishad
  44. Trisikhy-upanishad
  45. Sita Upanishad
  46. Yoga-cudamany-upanishad
  47. Nirvanopanishad
  48. Mandala-brahmanopanishad
  49. Dakshina-murty-upanishad
  50. Sarabhopanishad
  51. Skanda Upanishad
  52. Mahanarayana Upanishad
  53. Advayataraka Upanishad
  54. Rama-rahasyopanishad
  55. Rama-tapany-upanishad
  56. Vasudeva Opanishad
  57. Mudgalopanishad
  58. Sandilyopanishad
  59. Paingalopanishad
  60. Bhikshuka Upanishad
  61. Mahad-upanishad
  62. Sariraka Upanishad
  63. Yoga-sikhopanishad
  64. Turiyatitopanishad
  65. Sannyasopanishad
  66. Paramahamsa-parivrajaka Upanishad
  67. Malika Upanishad
  68. Avyaktopanishad
  69. Ekakshara Upanishad
  70. Purnopanishad
  71. Surya Upanishad
  72. Akshy Upanishad
  73. Adhyatmopanishad
  74. Kundikopanishad
  75. Savitri Upanishad
  76. Atma Upanishad
  77. Pasupatopanishad
  78. Param-brahmopanishad
  79. Avadhutaka Upanishad
  80. Tripuratapanopanishad
  81. Devi Upanishad
  82. Tripuropanishad
  83. Katha-rudropanishad
  84. Bhavanopanishad
  85. Hridayopanishad
  86. Yoga-Kundalini Upanishad
  87. Bhasma Upanishad
  88. Rudraksha Upanishad
  89. Ganapati Upanishad
  90. Darsanopanishad
  91. Tara-saropanishad
  92. Maha-vakyopanishad
  93. Panca-brahmopanishad
  94. Pranagni-hotropanishad
  95. Gopala Tapani Upanishad
  96. Krishna Upanishad
  97. Yajnavalkyopanishad
  98. Varaha Upanishad
  99. Satyayany-upanishad
  100. Hayagriva Upanishad
  101. Dattatreya Upanishad
  102. Garuda Upanishad
  103. Kali-Santarana Upanishad
  104. Jabaly Upanishad
  105. Saubhagyopanishad
  106. Sarasvati-rahasyopanishad
  107. Bahvricopanishad
  108. Muktikā Upanishad (this text)

Transmission

Almost all printed editions of ancient Vedas and Upanishads depend on the late manuscripts that are hardly older than 500 years, not on the still-extant and superior oral tradition.[5] Michael Witzel explains this oral tradition as follows:

The Vedic texts were orally composed and transmitted, without the use of script, in an unbroken line of transmission from teacher to student that was formalized early on. This ensured an impeccable textual transmission superior to the classical texts of other cultures; it is, in fact, something like a tape-recording.... Not just the actual words, but even the long-lost musical (tonal) accent (as in old Greek or in Japanese) has been preserved up to the present.[6]

Categories

In this canon,

  • 10 upaniṣads are associated with the Rigveda and have the śānti beginning vaṇme-manasi.
  • 16 upaniṣads are associated with the Samaveda and have the śānti beginning āpyāyantu.
  • 19 upaniṣads are associated with the Shukla Yajurveda and have the śānti beginning pūrṇamada.
  • 32 upaniṣads are associated with the Krishna Yajurveda and have the śānti beginning sahanāvavatu.
  • 31 upaniṣads are associated with the Atharvaveda and have the śānti beginning bhadram-karṇebhiḥ.

The first 13 are grouped as mukhya ("principal"). 21 are grouped as Sāmānya Vedānta ("common Vedanta"), The remainder are associated with five different schools or sects within Hinduism, 20 with Sannyāsa (asceticism), 8 with Shaktism, 14 with Vaishnavism, 12 with Shaivism and 20 with Yoga.

  Shukla Yajurveda Krishna Yajurveda Atharvaveda Samaveda Ṛgveda
Mukhya;[4]

these form the core of ancient texts, predating classical Hinduism; they span the 1st millennium BCE and reflect the emergence of Vedanta from Vedic religion.


Īṣa
Bṛhadāraṇyaka


Kaṭha
Taittirīya
Śvetāśvatara


Praśna
Muṇḍaka
Māṇḍūkya


Kena
Chāndogya
Maitrāyaṇi


Kauśītāki
Aitareya

Sāmānya;

These are general Vedantic Upanishads, and do not focus on any specific post-classical Hindu tradition.


Subāla
Mantrikā
Nirālamba
Paiṅgala
Adhyātmā
Muktikā


Garbha
Sarvasāra
Śukarahasya
Skanda
Śārīraka
Ekākṣara
Akṣi
Prāṇāgnihotra


Sūrya
Ātmā


Vajrasūchi
Mahad
Sāvitrī


Ātmabodha
Mudgala

Sannyāsa[7]

These are Upanishads that focus on asceticism and renunciation


Jābāla
Paramahaṃsa
Advayatāraka
Bhikṣu
Turīyātīta
Yājñavalkya
Śāṭyāyani


Brahma
Tejobindu
Avadhūta
Kaṭharudra


Parivrāt (Nāradaparivrājaka)
Paramahaṃsaparivrājaka
Parabrahma


Āruṇeya
Maitreyi
Sannyāsa
Kuṇḍika


Nirvāṇa

Śākta

These are Upanishads that focus on goddess Devi-related themes

 


Sarasvatīrahasya


Sītā
Annapūrṇa
Devī
Tripurātapani
Bhāvana

 


Tripura
Saubhāgya
Bahvṛca

Vaiṣṇava

These are Upanishads that focus on god Vishnu-related themes


Tārasāra


Nārāyaṇa
Kali-Saṇṭāraṇa (Kali)


Nṛsiṃhatāpanī
Mahānārāyaṇa (Tripād vibhuti)
Rāmarahasya
Rāmatāpaṇi
Gopālatāpani
Kṛṣṇa
Hayagrīva
Dattātreya
Gāruḍa


Vāsudeva
Avyakta

 
Śaiva

These are Upanishads that focus on god Shiva-related themes


Kaivalya
Kālāgnirudra
Dakṣiṇāmūrti
Rudrahṛdaya
Pañcabrahma


Atharvaśikha
Bṛhajjābāla
Śarabha
Bhasma
Gaṇapati


Rudrākṣa
Jābāla


Akṣamālika (Mālika)

Yoga[8]

These are Upanishads that focus on Yoga-related themes


Haṃsa
Triśikhi
Maṇḍalabrāhmaṇa


Amṛtabindu
Amṛtanāda
Kṣurika
Dhyānabindu
Brahmavidyā
Yogatattva
Yogaśikhā
Yogakuṇḍalinī
Varāha


Śāṇḍilya
Pāśupata
Mahāvākya


Yogachūḍāmaṇi
Darśana


Nādabindu

References

  1. ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads. Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199540259, see Introduction
  2. ^ Robert C Neville (2000), Ultimate Realities, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0791447765, page 319
  3. ^ Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, pages 28-29
  4. ^ a b Peter Heehs (2002), Indian Religions, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814736500, pages 60-88
  5. ^ Quotation of "... almost all printed editions depend on the late manuscripts that are hardly older than 500 years, not on the still extant and superior oral tradition" is from: Witzel, M., "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, p. 69.
  6. ^ For the quotation comparing recital to a "tape-recording" see: Witzel, M., "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood 2003, pp. 68–69.
  7. ^ Patrick Olivelle (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453, pages x-xi, 5
  8. ^ The Yoga Upanishads SS Sastri, Adyar Library
  • Muktika Upanishad, Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier, Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai,
  • Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.,  

External links

  • Muktika Upanishad - Translated by: Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai
  • Muktika of the Upanishads108
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