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Panticapeum

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Panticapeum

Panticapaeum
Παντικάπαιον
Kerch's Obelisk of Glory is visible in the background.
Panticapaeum
Shown within Ukraine
Location Kerch, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine
Region Taurica
Coordinates

45°21′3″N 36°28′7″E / 45.35083°N 36.46861°E / 45.35083; 36.46861Coordinates: 45°21′3″N 36°28′7″E / 45.35083°N 36.46861°E / 45.35083; 36.46861

Type Settlement
Area 100 ha (250 acres)
History
Builder Settlers from Miletus
Founded 7th or 6th century BC
Abandoned Approximately 370 AD
Periods Archaic Greek
Cultures Greek
Site notes
Condition Ruined
Ownership Public
Public access Yes

Panticapaeum (Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikápaion) was an important ancient Greek city on the eastern shore of Taurica, which is now the Crimean peninsula of Ukraine. The city was built on Mount Mithridat, a hill on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century BC. The ruins of the site are now located in the modern city Kerch.

Early existence

During the first centuries of the city's existence, imported Greek articles predominated: pottery (see Kerch Style), terracottas, and metal objects, probably from workshops in Rhodes, Corinth, Samos, and Athens. Local production, imitated from the models, was carried on at the same time. Athens manufactured a special type of bowl for the city, known as Kerch ware. Local potters imitated the Hellenistic bowls known as the Gnathia style as well as relief wares—Megarian bowls. The city minted silver coins from the mid-6th century BC and from the 1st century BC gold and bronze coins. At its greatest extent it occupied 100 hectares (250 acres).[1] The Hermitage and Kerch Museums contain material from the site, which is still being excavated.

Fifth to first centuries BC

In the 5th–4th centuries BC, the city became the residence first of the Archaeanactids and then of the Spartocids, dynasties of Thracian kings of Bosporus, and was hence itself sometimes called Bosporus. Its economic decline in the 4th–3rd centuries BC was the result of the Sarmatian conquest of the steppes and the growing competition of Egyptian grain.

Mithridates

The last of the Spartocids, Paerisades V, apparently left his realm to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus. This transition was arranged by one of Mithridates's generals, Diophantus, who earlier had been sent to Taurica to help local Greek cities against Palacus of Lesser Scythia. The mission did not go smoothly: Paerisades was murdered by Scythians led by Saumacus, and Diophantus escaped to return later with reinforcements to suppress the revolt (c. 110 BC).

Half of a century later, Mithridates took his life in Panticapaeum, when, after his defeat in a war against Rome, his son and heir Pharnaces and citizens of Panticapaeum turned against him.

Later history

In about 70 BC an earthquake caused heavy damage to the city. The city was destroyed by the Huns in approximately 370 AD. Later the area came under the control of the Byzantine Empire which built a new town at the site, which became known as Bosphorus in the Middle Ages.[1] This settlement ultimately developed in the modern city of Kerch.

References

Further reading

External links

  • Perseus Digital Library
  • Iconicarchive Photo Gallery
  • Decree honoring Diophantos, general of the Pontic king Mithridates VI
  • Similarities between Panticapaeum and the City of Atlantis as described by Plato. Eagle/Wind 2005
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