World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Presbyterian worship

Article Id: WHEBN0010194695
Reproduction Date:

Title: Presbyterian worship  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Christian worship, Presbyterianism, Regulative principle of worship, Calvinism
Collection: Calvinism, Christian Worship, Presbyterianism
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Presbyterian worship

Presbyterian worship documents worship practices in Presbyterian churches; in this case, the practises of the many churches descended from the Scottish Presbyterian church at the time of the Reformation.


  • Theology of Worship 1
  • History 2
    • Worship at the time of the Reformation 2.1
    • Introduction of Continuous Singing 2.2
    • Introduction of Hymns 2.3
    • Introduction of Instruments 2.4
  • Present Practice 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Theology of Worship

Historically, the driving principle in the development of the standards of Presbyterian worship is the Regulative principle of worship, which specifies that (in worship), what is not commanded is forbidden.[1]

In addition to those detailed in the History section below, Presbyterians also historically have held the following Worship positions:


Worship at the time of the Reformation

At the start of the Scottish Reformation in 1560 there was no Reformed standard for worship in Scotland, so the shape the Church initially took was dependent on local Protestant patrons.[2]

Writing from exile in Geneva, John Knox described in detail what should be done at weekly worship in a 'Letter of Wholesome Councell' dated 1556. Protestant preachers fleeing Marian persecutions in England brought with them Edward VI's second Book of Common Prayer (of 1552), which was commended by the Lords of the Congregation. Knox too initially supported it (indeed reportedly, he had influenced aspects of it). However, before leaving Geneva and with the encouragement of John Calvin, he had written his own 'Book of Common Order' and it was this that was printed and approved by the General Assembly of 1562. Enlarged, it was reprinted with the Confession and the Psalms in metre in 1564, and it remained the standard until replaced with the Westminster Directory in 1643.[2]

The Regulative principle of worship (see Theology of Worship, above) saw many of the previous practices (inherited from the Roman Catholic church) cast aside. Two major points which might be unusual by today's standards were:

  • Exclusive psalmody: the doctrine that, in worship, only the Psalms (from the Bible) were to be sung; singing other words was only to be done outside the worship service[3]
  • A cappella singing: the doctrine that no instruments were to be used in worship other than the human voice

Both of these were introduced, at least partly, to prevent the singing of hymns to Mary and the Saints.

Introduction of Continuous Singing

In early times the common method of singing in Presbyterian worship, was lining out, where a precentor read or sang one line and the congregation repeated it after them. The Directory of Public Worship,[4] says this:

That the whole congregation may join herein, every one that can read is to have a psalm book; and all others, not disabled by age or otherwise, are to be exhorted to learn to read. But for the present, where many in the congregation cannot read, it is convenient that the minister, or some other fit person appointed by him and the other ruling officers, do read the psalm, line by line, before the singing thereof.

It appears from the wording that this was a practical measure in 1650, not a doctrinal position. Lining out was used by other denominations as well for the practical reasons that many people were not sufficiently literate or because of a lack of hymnals.

From around 1720 onwards, many advocated the introduction of continuous (or regular) singing.[5] Continuous singing was introduced into many Presbyterian churches worldwide, even those that consider themselves to be following the traditional Presbyterian line on worship; there are some, who still practise lining out, such as the Steelites.

Introduction of Hymns

In this context, "hymns" means hymns that are not part of the Bible; the word "hymn" is used in the Bible, but it is claimed by advocates of exclusive psalmody that this refers to a specific type of psalm.[6]

After singing psalms for 200 years, in 1861 the Church of Scotland first formally adopted hymns, with the Free Church of Scotland doing the same in 1872.[7] Hymns and other extra-biblical words are now widely used in Presbyterian circles; the details vary from denomination to denomination.

Introduction of Instruments

In the early nineteenth century, the Revd R. William Ritchie of St. Andrew's Church, [8]

In 1863, the Revd Robert Lee introduced a

  1. ^ Westminster Confession of Faith, Chapter XXI, paragraph I
  2. ^ a b J.H.S. Burleigh. A Church History of Scotland. p. p160–163. 
  3. ^ Westminster Confession of Faith, Chapter XXI, paragraph V
  4. ^ Of the Singing of Psalms, Directory of Public Worship
  5. ^ The Regular Singing Controversy: The Case Against Lining-Out, Linda R. Ruggles
  6. ^ Psalms, hymns, and Spiritual songs, Rev. Ronald Hanko (PRCA)
  7. ^ Sing the Lord's Song! Part 7, John W. Keddie
  8. ^
  9. ^ Laurence James Moore, Sing to the Lord a New Song: A Study of Changing Musical Practices in the Presbyterian Church of Victoria, 1861 - 1901. Available at
  10. ^ At Least Weekly by Michael S. Horton


See also

In the Church of Scotland the cancellation of any regular service of worship is a very serious matter. Services are carried out even by small rural congregations in the most extreme weather and under conditions of power failure and other privations. Elders, teaching and ruling, make every effort to ensure continuity or worship in every parish of Scotland at the published times.

Presbyterians admit the authority of the Presbytery or Synod over all worship services in order to ensure that the worship of God, Father Son and Holy Spirit, is carried on properly and regularly in each congregation within the 'bounds' (area of jurisdiction). This is done by the appointment of Ministers by the Presbytery, who can also dismiss (depose) the Ministers should their conduct of regular worship be unsatisfactory. In modern times an effective presbytery is a forum for discussing and disseminating approaches to worship, always recognizing the supreme authority of the Word of God (Old and New Testaments of the Bible).

John Calvin's direction for celebration of Holy Communion was every Lord's Day.[10] During the time of the Puritan influence upon some Presbyterians, worship and the celebration of the Eucharist became lessened to once per quarter. This has changed in most mainline Presbyterian denominational churches and celebration of Communion ranges from once a quarter/ once a month to every Sunday or Lord's Day Service. This movement is carried forward by those who believe that Word and Sacrament should be present in each service of worship. The Real Presence of Christ (spiritually) is highly viewed and understood. Presbyterians strongly disagree with simply the symbolic or memorial service as taught by many Anabaptists, but do not go as far as the consubstantiation view of Lutherans. Presbyterians hold the "Spiritual Real Presence" of Christ in the sacrament of Communion. Today most mainline Presbyterian churches administer Communion by passing the elements or by intinction.

Presbyterian churches practise worship of Father, Son and Holy Spirit in regular services, especially on Sunday (or the Lord's Day). Other services often occur at other times of the week as well as meetings for prayer or Bible Study in many places. Some presbyterians admit a wide range of worship songs and hymns while others hold more strictly to psalms (or perhaps paraphrases). The original use of psalms only by the Church of Scotland (once recognised as the most thoroughly presbyterian - presbyterianism not being a theological stance but a means of church government) has been enhanced by use of hymns, and more modern worship songs, over more than a century. Other presbyterian denominations hold exclusively to the psalms in metre. The psalms in metre are still esteemed by worship leaders in the Church of Scotland while also recognising the contribution of authors of hymns and worship songs from historic times to the contemporary. Use of contemporary worship songs is employed by various congregations across the full width of theology within presbyterianism.

Present Practice


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.