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Requiescant in pace

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Requiescant in pace


"Rest in peace" (Latin: Requiescat in pace) is a short epitaph or idiomatic expression wishing eternal rest and peace to someone who has died. The expression typically appears on headstones, often abbreviated as "R.I.P.".

Description

The phrase or initialism is commonly found on the grave of Catholics,[1] as it is derived from the burial service of the Catholic Church according to the Tridentine Rite, in whose parts including the Missa pro Defunctis (Requiem Mass) it appears several times.[2]

To satisfy a vogue for rhyming couplets on tombstones, the phrase has been parsed as:[3] In high Latin, the "c" is hard (a "k" sound) so each "ce" above is roughly pronounced "kay." In Ecclesiastical Latin, however, when "c" comes before an "e", "ae", "oe", "i" or "y", it is pronounced like the "ch" in "church".

Originally in Hebrew in Isaiah (57, 2): The verse from Isaiah has been found inscribed in Hebrew on gravestones dating from the 1st century BC, in the graveyard of Bet Shearim. This verse speaks of the righteous person who died because he could not stand the evil surrounding him. A recapture of these words, read as "come and rest in peace," has been transferred to the ancient Talmudic prayers, in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic of the 3rd century AD. It is used to this day in traditional Jewish ceremonies.[4]

History

The phrase in English was not found on tombstones before the eighth century.[5][6] It became common on the tombs of Catholics in the 18th century, for whom it was a prayerful request that their soul should find peace in the afterlife. When the phrase became conventional, the absence of a reference to the soul led people to suppose that it was the physical body that was enjoined to lie peacefully in the grave.[7] This is associated with the Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment; that is, that the soul is parted from the body upon death, but that the soul and body will be reunited on Judgment Day.[8]

Other variations include “Requiescat in pace et in amore” for "May she rest in peace and love", and “In pace requiescat et in amore”. The word order is variable because Latin syntactical relationships are indicated by the inflexional endings, not by word order. However, if “Rest in peace” is used in an imperative mood, it would be “Requiesce in pace” (acronym R.I.P.) in the third person singular, or “Requiescite in pace” in the third person plural.[9]

In art

Linguistic analogues

Phrases in other languages:

  • Albanian: U prehtë në paqe (P.N.P.)
  • Afrikaans: Rust en Vrede
  • Arabic: ارقد في سلام‎ (Orqod fi salaam)
  • Azerbaijani: Allah Rehmet elesin
  • Basque: Goian Bego (G.B.)
  • Belarusian: Спачывай у спакоі (Spačyvaj u spakoi)
  • Bulgarian: Почивай в мир (Pochivaj v mir)
  • Catalan: Descansi en pau (DEP)
  • Chinese: 安息 (Mandarin: Ān xí)
  • Czech: Odpočívej v pokoji
  • Croatian: Počivao/počivala u miru.
  • ['t͡sarsvije nʲɛ'bʲɛsnoje], “Kingdom of Heaven [for him/her]”)
  • Danish: Hvil i fred
  • Dutch: Rust in vrede
  • Esperanto: Ripozu pace (R.P.)
  • Estonian: Puhka rahus
  • Finnish: Lepää rauhassa
  • French: Repose en paix (R.E.P.)
  • German: Ruhe in Frieden
  • Georgian: ცხონდეს, ღმერთმა აცხონოს (“May God grant him/her eternal life”)
  • Greek: Αναπαύσου εν ειρήνη ([ana'pafsu en i'rini])
  • Hebrew: תהא נשמתו צרורה בצרור החיים (תנצב"ה)‎ (Tehe nishmato tsrura bitsror hahayim)
  • Hindi: दिवंगत आत्मा को शांति (Hindi, India) {divangat Atma ko shanti}
  • Hungarian: Nyugodjék békében
  • Icelandic: Hvíli í friði (H.Í.F.)
  • Indonesian: Beristirahat dengan Tenang (B.d.T.)
  • Irish: Ar dheis Dé go raibh a (h)anam (Lit.On God's right may his/her soul be)
  • Italian: Riposi in pace (R.I.P.)
  • Japanese: 安らかに眠れ (Yasurakani nemure)
  • Korean: 고인의 명복을 빕니다 (Goinui myeongbogeul bimnida)
  • Kyrgyz: Жаткан жери жайлуу болсун (Jatkan jeri jayluu bolsun)
  • Lithuanian: Ilsėkis ramybėje
  • Macedonian: Почивај во мир (Pochivaj vo mir)
  • Norwegian: Hvil i fred
  • Persian: روحش شاد یا خدا بیامرزه]‏ در آرامش بمیر]
  • Polish: Spoczywaj w pokoju,
  • Portuguese: Descanse em Paz
  • Romanian: Odihnească-se în pace
  • Russian: Покойся с миром ([pɐ'kojsʲa s 'mirom])
  • Scottish Gaelic: Gus am bris an là (lit. Until the day breaks)
  • Serbian: Почивај у миру.(Počivaj u miru)
  • Slovak: Odpočívaj v pokoji
  • Slovene: Počivaj v miru
  • Spanish: Descanse en paz/Que en paz descanse (D.E.P./Q.E.P.D.)
  • Swedish: Vila i frid
  • Tagalog: Sumalángit Nawâ (S.L.N., “In heaven may [he/she/they] be”)
  • Tajik: ҷояш ҷаннад шавад (dʒojaʂ dʒanat ʂavad)
  • Tamil: பிரிந்த ஆத்துமாவிற்கு சாந்தியை (Tamil, India) {Pirinta āttumāviṟku cāntiyai}
  • Telugu: వెళ్ళిపోయాడు ఆత్మ శాంతి (Telugu, India) {Veḷḷipōyāḍu ātma śānti}
  • Thai: ขอให้ไปสู่สุขคติ
  • Turkish: Huzur içinde yat
  • امن سے آرام
  • Vietnamese: Hãy An Nghỉ
  • Welsh: Gorffwys mewn hedd

References

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