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Salavan Province

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Salavan Province

Salavan
ສາລະວັນ
Province
Map of Salavan Province
Map of Salavan Province
Map showing location of Salavan Province in Laos
Location of Salavan Province in Laos
Coordinates:
Country  Laos
Capital Salavan
Area
 • Total 10,691 km2 (4,128 sq mi)
Population (2004)
 • Total 336,600
 • Density 31/km2 (82/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+07
ISO 3166 code LA-SL

Salavan (also Saravane, Lao: ສາລະວັນ) is a province of Laos, located in the south of the country. Its earlier name was Saravan which was changed by Thai to Salavan in 1828. It was part of the Champasak Kingdom in an area known as Muang Mang inhabited by minorities of Mon-Khymer groups.[1]

Salavan Province covers an area of 16,389 square kilometres (6,328 sq mi). The province borders Savannakhét Province to the north, Vietnam to the east, Xekong Province to the southeast, Champasak Province to the south and Thailand to the west. The central part of the province is located on the Bolaven Plateau, which is a key agricultural area with Arabica coffee as the dominant cash crop. The western part of Salavan province is delimited by the Mekong River while the eastern part is delimited by the Lao-Vietnamese border.

History

Approximately 1,500 years ago, a Mon-Khmer group, the Khom established settlements in what is now Salavan Province. It came to be ruled by the Champa after the Cham people migrated from South China to the territory. Various kingdoms united into the Lan Xang under Fa Ngum in 1353. Between 1779 and 1893, the province was a Thai colony. In the 20th century, it became a French Protectorate under the Franco-Siamese Treaty of October 3, 1893. The province had 8 districts and 715 villages after the liberation of 1975.[2]

In the Indochina war, Salavan town was subject to extensive depredation when its control frequently shifted between the Royal Forces and the Pathet Lao. It was subsequently rebuilt with brick masonry and timber buildings, coexisting with the few old buildings which survived the war.[1]

Geography

Salavan Province covers an area of 16,389 square kilometres (6,328 sq mi).[3] The province borders Savannakhét Province to the north, Vietnam to the east, Xekong Province to the southeast, Champasak Province to the south and Thailand to the west. Notable settlements in the province include Salavan, Muang Khongxedon, Ban Tha Kien, Ban D'Hon, Ban Phou Daotleng Noi, Ban La Khone Pheng, Ban Laongam, Ban Dong, Ban Lavang, Ban Nongbua, Ban Khanmakgnot, Ban Yon, Man Donmouang, Ban Napho, Ban Proy, Ban Tang-Un Tai, Choiavieng, Ban Ralao, Ban Kanay, Tavouc, Tala and A Boum.[4]

The Saravan city, capital of the province is located on a bend of Se Don River, which flows through the province and eventually joins Mekong River at Pakse. The city serves as a nerve center for supply of goods to the hinterland districts of the province.[1] The city is the administrative, economic and cultural hub of the province. Subsequent to the extensive damage caused to the town during the 1971 Indochina war, it has been rebuilt as per modern urban planning concepts. Two French colonial buildings are still seen here. The market centre in the town is very colourful.[3]

Nang Bua Lake, from where the Se Bon Rriver originates, is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from the city. The lake has a few Siamese crocodiles (Khai in Lao). Nearby is a hill, Phu Katae at 1,588 metres (5,210 ft) where the CIA airstrip was once functional.[1]

Its origin is volcanic with mountains and wide valleys. The central part of the province is located on the Bolaven Plateau, which is a key agricultural area with Arabica coffee as the dominant cash crop and other horticultural products which are exported. The western part of Salavan province is delimited by the Mekong river while the eastern part is delimited by the Lao-Vietnamese border.[3][5] In addition to the Bolaven Plateau and the Mekong, the topography includes plains and a mountainous region near the border with Vietnam.[2] The two protected areas in the province are the Xe Pian and Dong Ampham.[6]

Access to the province is difficult as the road network is not in good condition, particularly during the monsoon rains.[6]

Protected areas

The Xe Sap [7]

The "Mekong Channel from Phou Xiang Thong to Siphandon" IBA is 34,200 ha in size. There is a 10,000 ha overlap with the [8]

The Phou Xiang Thong IBA (36,650 hectare) is situated within the Phou Xiengthong NBCA (120,000 hectare). The IBA encompasses two provinces, Salavan and Champasak. The IBA is located at an altitude of 40–500 metres (130–1,640 ft) above sea level. Its topography is characterized by low hills, lowlands, rivers, and seasonal streams. Its habitat contains dry deciduous tropical forest, moist deciduous tropical forest, semi-evergreen tropical rain forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry [9]

Xe Bang Nouan (XBN) Protected Area was established on 29 October 1993 covering an area of 1260 sqkm, and extending over Salavan and Savanakhet Provinces. The topography of the reserve lies in the elevation range of 200-1000m; has flat to gently rolling terrain below 400 m elevation in the north and south of the damar, fish and sticklac are exploited by the ethnic population living in the reserve for economic sustenance; they also have livestock and shifting cultivation practices.[10]

Administrative divisions

The province is made up of the following eight districts:[3]
Map Code Name Lao
14-01 Saravane District
14-02 Ta Oy District
14-03 Toomlarn District
14-04 Lakhonepheng District (also known as Nakhonepheng.[2])
14-05 Vapy District
14-06 Khongsedone District
14-07 Lao Ngarm District
14-08 Samuoi District

Demographics

The population of the province as per 2005 census was 300,000 distributed over eight districts.[3] The ethnic groups in the province comprise the Tahoy, Pako, Katang, Kado, Suay and Laven.[6]

Economy

Salavan Province is one of the most important coffee producing areas of Laos along with Champasak Province and Sekong Province.[11] Arabica coffee and coffee beans are the products of the Bolaven Plateau which is an export revenue product and can also be bought in villages along the roads.[6]

Landmarks

Katang village in Toomlarn District is known for silk weaving. Here the Lapup Festival is held in late February, when buffaloes are sacrificed. Hence, the festival is also called the Katu and Alak Buffalo Sacrifice. The village is located on the Ho Chi Minh Trail where UXOs are found and are a threat to the people. However, people still collect the war relics and sell them.[1]

Tahoy town is where the Tahoy ethnic groups reside; there are about 30,000 of them. Their cultural practice involves shamanistic rituals combined with animism. During the festivals, people of the town erect totems made in the form of a diamond as a warning to outsiders not to enter the town. Tigers are a common sight in this town which keeps the people indoors during the night.[1]

Tatlo on the Bolaven Plain is known for Katu and Alak villages, as well as a waterfall.[12]

Culture

Lam Salavane is a Lao language folksong derived from Mon–Khmer styles. It includes instrumental accompaniment of a drum, fiddle, flute, khene, lute, and other percussive instruments.[13] Several television stations are available in Salavan. Lao National Television broadcasts TNL1 (from Vientiane, and TNL3 (from Vientiane. Salavan Media broadcasts four national channels TV-Veritas Channel 1, TV-Veritas Channel 2, TV-Veritas Channel 3, and TV-Veritas Channel 4.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Burke, Andrew; Vaisutis, Justine (2007). Laos 6th Edition. Lonely Planet. pp. 288–290.  
  2. ^ a b c THE MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND SOCIAL WELFARE. "‘CHASING HORIZONS’: A STUDY INTO CROSS BORDER MIGRATION AND TRAFFICKING1 IN SEVEN VILLAGES OF LAKHONEPHENG DISTRICT SALAVAN PROVINCE, LAO PDR". Village Focus International. p. 5. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Saravane Province". Lao Tourism Organizaation. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  4. ^ "Base Map:Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR". UNOSAT. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  5. ^ The Lao National Tourism Administration. "Salavan Province". Ecotourism Laos. GMS Sustainable Tourism Development Project in Lao PDR. Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Salavan Province". Official web site of Laos Ecotourism Organization. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  7. ^ "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Xe Sap". BirdLife International. 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  8. ^ "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mekong Channel from Phou Xiang Thong to Siphandon". BirdLife International. 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  9. ^ "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Phou Xiang Thong". BirdLife International. 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 
  10. ^ "Xe Bang Nouan". Official web site of Laos Ecotourism Organization. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (EPub). International Monetary Fund. 21 October 2008. p. 54.  
  12. ^ Bush & Elliot 2010, p. 298.
  13. ^ Miller & Williams 2008, p. 189.

Bibliography

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