World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sicily (theme)

Article Id: WHEBN0029804629
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sicily (theme)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Theme (Byzantine district), Pope Stephen III, Stephen II of Naples, Stephen III of Naples
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Sicily (theme)

Theme of Sicily
Σικελία, θέμα Σικελίας
Theme of the Byzantine Empire

687/695–902
 

Capital Syracuse, then Rhegion
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Established 687/695
 •  Fall of Taormina to the Arabs 902
 •  Theme renamed to Calabria Mid-10th century
Today part of  Italy
 Malta

The Theme of Sicily (Greek: θέμα Σικελίας - Thema Sikelias) was a Byzantine military-civilian province (thema, theme) existing from the late 7th to the 10th century, encompassing the island of Sicily and the region of Calabria in the Italian mainland. Following the Muslim conquest of Sicily, from 902 the theme was limited to Calabria, but retained its original name until the middle of the 10th century.

History

Ever since its reconquest from the Ostrogoths by Belisarius in 535–536, Sicily had formed a distinct province under a praetor, while the army was placed under a dux.[1][2] A strategos (military governor) is attested on the island in Arab sources between 687 and 695, and it is at that time that the island was probably made into a theme.[3]

The theme was based in Syracuse, traditionally the chief city of Sicily. It comprised not only the island, which was divided into districts called tourmai, but also the mainland duchy of Calabria (Greek: δουκᾶτον Καλαυρίας, doukaton Kalavrias), which extended roughly up to the river Crati.[3][4][5] In addition, the strategos of Sicily exercised some authority—varying according to the prevailing local political faction—over the autonomous duchies of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi.[6]

The Muslim conquest of the island began in 826. Following the fall of Syracuse in 878 and the conquest of Taormina in 902, the strategos moved to Rhegion, the capital of Calabria. During the first half of the 10th century, the Byzantines launched a number of failed expeditions to regain the island and maintained a few isolated strongholds near Messina until 965, when Rametta, the last Byzantine outpost, fell. The post of "strategos of Sicily" was thus retained as the official title until the mid-10th century, when the "strategos of Calabria" begins to appear in the lists.[7][8][9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1891.
  2. ^ Nesbitt & Oikonomides 1994, p. 22.
  3. ^ a b Oikonomides 1972, p. 351.
  4. ^ Nesbitt & Oikonomides 1994, pp. 19, 22.
  5. ^ Pertusi 1952, p. 179.
  6. ^ Brown 2008, pp. 457–459.
  7. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1892.
  8. ^ Oikonomides 1972, pp. 351, 356.
  9. ^ Pertusi 1952, pp. 178–180.

Sources

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.