World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Singapore–United States relations

United States–Singapore relations
Map indicating locations of Singapore and USA


United States

United States – Singapore relations are bilateral relations between the United States and the Singapore. Singapore and the United States have long been close allies, and relations between the 2 countries have traditionally been solidly strong and amicable, with the two nations enjoying extensive military, economic, cultural and commercial relations.

According to the U.S. Global Leadership Report, 77% of Singaporeans approved of U.S. leadership under the Obama Administration in 2010, and while this approval rating decreased slightly down to 75% in 2011, it nonetheless remained the highest rating of the U.S. for any surveyed country in the Asia-Pacific region.[1]


  • History 1
    • Hendrickson affair 1.1
  • Fields of relations 2
    • Free trade agreement 2.1
    • Military relations 2.2
      • Relief operations 2.2.1
    • Academic exchanges 2.3
  • Diplomatic representation 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7


The United States first opened a consulate in Singapore in 1836, when the island was part of the Straits Settlements of the British Empire. Singapore and the United States have maintained formal diplomatic relations since the independence of Singapore in 1965.[2] Singapore's efforts to maintain economic growth and political stability and its support for regional cooperation harmonize with U.S. policy in the region and form a solid basis for amicable relations between the two countries.[3]

Hendrickson affair

The investigations into the Marxist conspirators led to an unexpected discovery. A US diplomat stationed here, Hank Hendrickson, had been interfering in Singapore politics ... Such foreign clandestine operations are part and parcel of “the Great Game” between countries, even friendly ones ... These episodes taught us that it was just as important to monitor our friends as we do our enemies.

Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister of Singapore, in a 2008 speech to the Internal Security Department on the occasion of their 60th anniversary dinner.[4]

E. Mason "Hank" Hendrickson (born 1945), an American diplomat married to fellow Foreign Service officer Anne E. Derse, was serving as the First Secretary of the United States Embassy when he was expelled by the Singaporean government in May 1988.[5][6][7] Prior to his expulsion, he arranged for Francis Seow and Patrick Seong to travel to Washington, D.C. to meet with American officials at Hendrickson's arrangement.[8] After their return, Singapore detained them under the Internal Security Act.[9] Based on Seow and Seong's statements while in custody, the Singaporean government alleged that Hendrickson attempted to interfere in Singapore's internal affairs by cultivating opposition figures in a "Marxist conspiracy".[8] Then-First Deputy Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong claimed that Hendrickson's alleged conspiracy could have resulted in the election of 20 or 30 opposition politicians to Parliament, which in his words could lead to "horrendous" effects, possibly even the paralysis and fall of the Singaporean government.[9]

In the aftermath of Hendrickson's expulsion, the U.S. State Department praised his performance in Singapore and denied any impropriety in his actions.[5] The State Department also expelled Robert Chua, a senior-level Singaporean diplomat equal in rank to Mason, from Washington, D.C. in response.[10][11] The State Department's refusal to reprimand Hendrickson, along with their expulsion of the Singaporean diplomat, sparked a protest in Singapore by the National Trades Union Congress; they drove buses around the U.S. embassy, held a rally attended by four thousand workers, and issued a statement deriding the U.S. as "sneaky, arrogant, and untrustworthy".[12]

A Heritage Foundation paper speculated that Singapore's angry public reaction to the Hendrickson affair may have been a response to the January 1988 termination of Singapore's eligibility for the Generalized System of Preferences, which provided tariff exemptions on Singaporean exports to the United States.[10]

Fields of relations

Free trade agreement

George W. Bush signing the free trade agreement in 2003

The United States and Singapore signed a bilateral free trade agreement on 6 May 2003; the agreement entered into force on 1 January 2004. The growth of U.S. investment in Singapore and the large number of Americans living there enhance opportunities for contact between Singapore and the United States. Singapore is a Visa Waiver Program country.[3]

Military relations

Singapore has long standing military relations with the United States. The United States sells arms to Singapore and provides access to its bases to train the Singaporean armed services outside of their small city-state.[13] Under the US-Singapore Strategic Framework Agreement, some US Navy littoral combat ships are to rotationally deployed to Singapore.[14]

Relief operations

Following that devastation of the United States Gulf Coast by Hurricane Katrina, three Singaporean CH-47 Chinook helicopters and thirty-eight RSAF personnel from a training detachment based in Grand Prairie, Texas, assisted in relief operations from 1 September. They ferried about 700 evacuees and hauled tons of supplies in 39 sorties on 4 September. One more CH-47 Chinook helicopter was sent to aid in relief efforts.

Academic exchanges

In 2011, more than 4,300 Singaporeans were studying in the United States, the highest figure in 10 years. The number of Singaporean students studying in the United States grew by 7 percent since 2010. American universities with the most number of Singaporeans are among the most prestigious in the country which includes Harvard University, Cornell University, Stanford University, and University of California, Berkeley. To add to the rising number of college students study in the United States, many local students in Singapore have also opted to study in American High Schools. US Ambassador to Singapore David Adelman said that the high number of Singaporeans studying in the United States reflects that Singapore–United States relations "have never been better".[15]

In 2012, Singapore and the United States signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to enhance collaboration in education between the two countries. This is the second MOU between the United States and Singapore on education. The first MOU signed in 2002 primarily focused on the teaching and learning of the Singaporean method of Mathematics and Science. The 2012 MOU have enhanced the teaching of Mathematics and Science, teacher development and school leadership, and educational research and benchmarking studies. In Addition, the conference also announced that the National Institute of Education (NIE) in Singapore and Columbia University's Teachers College are launching a joint Masters of Arts in Leadership and Educational Change. This joint Masters programme will take in up to 30 students from January 2013.[16]

The U.S. government sponsors visitors from Singapore each year under the Asia Foundation and Ford Foundation, also sponsor exchanges involving Singaporeans.[3]

Diplomatic representation

In addition to the Embassy of Singapore, Washington, D.C., Singapore has a Consulate General in San Francisco, a Consulate in New York (also as regional consular services for eastern Canada after closure of Consulate in Toronto) and Honorary Consulates in Chicago, Miami and Houston. The Singapore ambassador to the United States is Ashok Mirpuri, since July 1996.[17] Former United States Ambassador to Singapore. Steven J. Green is the Honorary Consul in Miami while the Former Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, Newton N. Minow is the Honorary Consul in Chicago.

The United States first opened a consulate in Singapore, then part of the British Straits Settlements, in 1836, appointing Joseph Balestier to the post of consul. The American embassy in Singapore was established on 4 April 1966, under chargé d'affaires ad interim Richard H. Donald.[2] David I. Adelman has served as U.S. ambassador to Singapore since March 2010.[18]

See also


 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).

  1. ^ U.S. Global Leadership Project Report - 2011 Gallup
  2. ^ a b U.S. State Dept. 2011
  3. ^ a b c U.S. State Dept. 2009
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ Rogers 2002, p. 131
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b Bellows 1989
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^ a b Conboy 1989
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^

Further reading

  • Chua, Daniel Wei Boon, "Becoming a `Good Nixon Doctrine Country': Political Relations between the United States and Singapore during the Nixon Presidency," Australian Journal of Politics and History 60 (Dec. 2014), 534-48.

External links

  • Singapore - U.S. relations

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.