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Soanian

 

Soanian

Soan valley near Adiala, Pakistan

The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic (ca. 500,000 to 125,000 BP) in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.[1] Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan Valley in the Sivalik Hills, Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day India, Nepal and Pakistan.[2]

On Adiyala and Khasala about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Rawalpindi terrace on the bend of the river hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. At Chauntra hand axes and cleavers were found.

In fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are on display at the Pakistan Museum of Natural History in Islamabad.

The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936,[7] however, D. N. Wadia had identified the presence of these archaeological implements in 1928.[8] Further archaeological research was conducted by Stephen Lycett in order to determine the morphometric assessment of Soanian techno-complex. The result of this experiment concluded that the Soanian techno-complex contains a Mode 3 Levallois technique core component.[9]

Contents

  • See also 1
  • References 2
  • Further reading 3
  • External links 4

See also

References

  1. ^ Lycett, Stephen J., Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment.
  2. ^ Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region
  3. ^ P. Rajendran1, Peter Koshy2 and Santha Sadasivan3. "Homo Sapiens (Archaic) Baby Fossil of the Middle Pleistocene | Rajendran | Ancient Asia". Ancient-asia-journal.com. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  4. ^ "Over 2 lakh years old fossilised skull found - The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2003-03-31. Retrieved 2014-03-10. 
  5. ^ http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/mar252003/754.pdf
  6. ^ "Religions and Religious Freedom in India", page 20
  7. ^ Hellmut De Terra (1969). George Grant MacCurdy, ed. Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 1937. pp. 267–.  
  8. ^ Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007) [1964]. Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man. Transaction Publishers. pp. 224–.  
  9. ^ Lycett, Stephen J., Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment.

Further reading

  • V. A. Ranov; D. Dorj; Lu Zün-E (1999). Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, ed. History of civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 45–.  
  • Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007). Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man. Transaction Publishers. pp. 223–.  
  • Hellmut De Terra (1969). Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 1937. Ayer Publishing, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. pp. 263–.  
  • Ahmad Hasan, Dani. Prehistoric Pakistan'. 
  • Armand, J. The Middle Pleistocene Pebble Tool Site of Durkadi in Central India. 
  • Armand J. (1985). "The Emergence of the Handaxe Tradition in Asia, with Special Reference to India". In V. N. Misra, Peter S. Bellwood. Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory: proceedings of the international symposium held at Poona, December 19–21, 1978. BRILL. pp. 4–.  
  • Lal, B. B., A Decade of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archaeology in India, 1951-1960.

External links

  • The Acheulian/Soanian dichotomy


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