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Summits of the Americas

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Summits of the Americas

Summits of the Americas

The Summits of the Americas (SOA) is a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean; however, no representative from Cuba has participated.[1] The meetings provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

The summits have been organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States.

In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[2]

Summits of the Americas

Year # Dates Country City Host leader
1994 [3] 1st December 9–11 United States[4] Miami Bill Clinton
1998 2nd April 18–19 Chile[5] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
2001 3rd April 20–22 Canada[6] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
2005 4th November 4–5 Argentina[7] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
2009 5th April 17–19 Trinidad and Tobago[8] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
2012 6th April 14–15 Colombia[9] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
2015 7th April 10–11 Panama[10] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
2018 8th TBD Suriname[11] TBD TBD

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

Membership and adhesions

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS. Upon foundation on 5 May 1948, there were 21 members:

The later expansion of the OAS included Canada and the newly independent nations of the Caribbean. Members with later admission dates (sorted chronologically):

Notes

  1. ^ Suspended between 1962–2009.[12] See Status of Cuba below.
  2. ^ Suspended between 2009-2011.[13] See Suspension of Honduras below.

Non-members

The following is a list non-members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the states that control them.

 Denmark


 France

 United Kingdom

 Netherlands


 United States



Notes

  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). p. 382.Health Care Reform Around the World,
  3. ^ Florida International University, Summit of the Americas Center (SOAC): Summits list
  4. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  7. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  12. ^ "Member States". OAS. Retrieved 2012-11-01. 
  13. ^ "OAS readmits Honduras to its ranks". CNN. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2012-11-01. 

References

  • Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing. 10-ISBN 0-86569-288-2; 13-ISBN 978-0-86569-288-6; OCLC 48132063

External links

  • Summits of the Americas
  • The Fifth Summit of The Americas
  • Summits of the Americas Follow-up System (SISCA)
  • Follow-up and Implementation of Summits
  • Summits Virtual community (SVC)
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