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United Methodist Church

United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church logo - flames licking around a simple black cross
United Methodist Church 'cross and flame' logo
Classification Mainline Protestant[1] & Evangelical[2][3]
Orientation Methodism
Polity Connectionalism[4]
(Modified episcopal polity)
Associations Churches Uniting in Christ,
Christian Churches Together,
National Council of Churches,
Wesleyan Holiness Consortium
World Methodist Council

Worldwide: divided into

122 Annual Conferences,[5] and 69 Episcopal Areas.[5]
Origin 1968
Dallas, Texas
Merge of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church.
Congregations 34,892[5]
Members Worldwide: 12.1 million (7,725,039 in the United States;[6] 4.4 million in Africa, Asia, and Europe).[7]
Official website
A typical United Methodist church, in Page, Arizona, United States.

The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a MethodistChristian denomination that is mainline Protestant today. In the 19th century its main predecessor was a leader in Evangelicalism. Founded in 1968 by the union of the Methodist Church (USA) and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley in England as well as the Great Awakening in the United States.[8][9] As such, the church's theological orientation is decidedly Wesleyan.[10] It embraces both liturgical and evangelical elements.[11][12]

The United Methodist Church is the largest denomination within the wider Methodist movement, which has approximately 80 million adherents across the world.[13] In the United States, the UMC ranks as the largest mainline Protestant denomination, the largest Protestant church after the Southern Baptist Convention, and the third largest Christian denomination. As of 2009, worldwide membership was about 12 million: 7.7 million in the United States,[6] and 4.4 million in Africa, Asia and Europe.[7] It is a member of the World Council of Churches, the World Methodist Council, and other religious associations.


  • History 1
    • Church origins 1.1
    • Predecessors 1.2
    • 1968 merger 1.3
  • Beliefs 2
    • Doctrine 2.1
    • Summary of basic beliefs 2.2
    • Distinctive Wesleyan emphases 2.3
    • Characterization of Wesleyan theology 2.4
    • Diversity within beliefs 2.5
    • Social issues 2.6
      • Abortion 2.6.1
      • Alcohol 2.6.2
      • Capital punishment 2.6.3
      • Gambling 2.6.4
      • Homosexuality 2.6.5
      • Military service 2.6.6
      • Pornography 2.6.7
      • Stem cell research 2.6.8
      • War 2.6.9
  • Worship and liturgy 3
    • Order of Worship 3.1
      • Gathering 3.1.1
      • The Prayers 3.1.2
      • Proclamation 3.1.3
      • Response 3.1.4
      • Going Forth 3.1.5
    • Saints 3.2
  • Organization 4
    • Governance 4.1
    • General Conference 4.2
    • Jurisdictional and Central Conferences 4.3
    • Judicial Council 4.4
    • Annual Conference 4.5
    • Districts 4.6
    • Local churches 4.7
    • Administrative offices 4.8
  • Education 5
  • Clergy 6
    • History 6.1
    • Ordination of women 6.2
    • Bishop 6.3
    • Elder 6.4
    • Deacon 6.5
    • Provisional clergy 6.6
    • Local pastors 6.7
  • Laity 7
    • Lay Servant 7.1
    • Certified Lay Minister 7.2
  • Ecumenical relations 8
  • Membership trends 9
  • Churchwide Giving 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
    • Primary sources 12.1
  • External links 13


Church origins

Statue of John Wesley in Savannah, Georgia, where he served as a missionary.

The movement which would become The United Methodist Church began in the mid-18th century within the Oxford University campus. They focused on Bible study, methodical study of scripture and living a holy life. Other students mocked them, saying they were the "Holy Club" and "the Methodists", being methodical and exceptionally detailed in their Bible study, opinions and disciplined lifestyle. Eventually, the so-called Methodists started individual societies or classes for members of the Church of England who wanted to live a more religious life.

In 1735, John and Charles Wesley went to America to teach the gospel to the

  1. People are all, by nature, "dead in sin," and, consequently, "children of wrath."
  2. They are "justified by faith alone."
  3. Faith produces inward and outward holiness.

Very quickly, these clergymen became popular, attracting large congregations. The nickname students had used against the Wesleys was revived; they and their followers became known as Methodists.[14]


Barratt's Chapel, built in 1780, is the oldest Methodist Church in the United States built for that purpose. The church was a meeting place of Asbury and Coke.

The first official organization in the United States occurred in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1784, with the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church at the Christmas Conference with Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke as the leaders.[15][16]

The ordination of Bishop Francis Asbury by Bishop Thomas Coke at the Christmas Conference establishing the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1784.

Though John Wesley originally wanted the Methodists to stay within the Church of England, the Anglican Prayerbook and the Articles of Religion which were received and adopted by the Baltimore Christmas Conference of 1784, officially establishing the Methodist Episcopal Church. The conference was held at the Lovely Lane Methodist Church, considered the Mother Church of American Methodism.[17]

The new church grew rapidly in the young country as it employed circuit riders, many of whom were laymen, to travel the mostly rural nation by horseback to preach the Gospel and to establish churches until there was scarcely any village in the United States without a Methodist presence. With 4000 circuit riders by 1844, the Methodist Episcopal Church rapidly became the largest Protestant denomination in the country.

Methodist Protestant Church split from the Methodist Episcopal Church over the issue of laity having a voice and vote in the administration of the church, insisting that clergy should not be the only ones to have any determination in how the church was to be operated. In 1844, the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church split into two conferences because of tensions over slavery and the power of bishops in the denomination.

The two general conferences, Methodist Episcopal Church (the northern section) and Methodist Episcopal Church, South remained separate until 1939. That year, the northern and southern Methodist Episcopal Churches and the Methodist Protestant Church merged to create The Methodist Church. The uniting conference took place at First Methodist Church (now First United Methodist Church) of Marion, Indiana.

1968 merger

On April 23, 1968, the United Methodist Church was created when the Evangelical United Brethren Church (represented by Bishop Reuben H. Mueller) and The Methodist Church (represented by Bishop Lloyd Christ Wicke) joined hands at the constituting General Conference in Dallas, Texas. With the words, "Lord of the Church, we are united in Thee, in Thy Church and now in The United Methodist Church"[18] the new denomination was given birth by the two churches that had distinguished histories and influential ministries in various parts of the world.


The United Methodist Church seeks to create disciples for Christ through outreach, evangelism, and through seeking holiness, also called sanctification, by the power of the Holy Spirit. The flame in the church logo represents the work of the Holy Spirit in the world, and the two parts of the flame also represent the predecessor denominations, the Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren, united at the base symbolizing the 1968 merger.

The United Methodist Church understands itself to be part of the holy catholic (or universal) church and it recognizes the historic ecumenical creeds,[19] the Apostle's Creed[20] and the Nicene Creed;[21] which are used frequently in services of worship.[22] The Book of Discipline also recognizes the importance of the Chalcedonian Creed of the Council of Chalcedon.[23] It upholds the concept of the "visible and invisible Church," meaning that all who are truly believers in every age belong to the holy Church invisible, while the United Methodist Church is a branch of the Church visible, to which all believers must be connected as it is the only institution wherein the Word of God is preached and the Sacraments are administered.

Some argue that The United Methodist Church can lay a claim on apostolic succession, as understood in the traditional sense.[24] As a result of the American Revolution, John Wesley was compelled in 1784 to break with standard practice and ordain two of his lay preachers as presbyters, Thomas Vasey and Richard Whatcoat. Dr. Thomas Coke, already an Anglican priest, assisted Wesley in this action. Coke was then "set apart" as a superintendent (bishop) by Wesley and dispatched with Vasey and Whatcoat to America to take charge of Methodist activities there. In defense of his action to ordain, Wesley himself cited an ancient opinion from the Church of Alexandria, which held that bishops and presbyters constituted one order and therefore, bishops are to be elected from and by the presbyterate.[25] He knew that for two centuries the succession of bishops in the Church of Alexandria was preserved through ordination by presbyters alone and was considered valid by the ancient church. Methodists today who would argue for apostolic succession would do so on these grounds.

While many United Methodist congregations operate in the evangelical tradition, others reflect the mainline Protestant traditions. Although United Methodist practices and interpretation of beliefs have evolved over time, these practices and beliefs can be traced to the writings of the church's founders, especially John Wesley and Charles Wesley (Anglicans), but also Philip William Otterbein and Martin Boehm (United Brethren), and Jacob Albright (Evangelical Association). With the formation of The United Methodist Church in 1968, theologian Albert C. Outler led the team which systematized denominational doctrine. Outler's work proved pivotal in the work of union, and he is largely considered the first United Methodist theologian.


The officially established Doctrinal Standards of United Methodism are:

  • The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church;[26]
  • The Confessions of Faith of the Evangelical United Brethren Church;[26]
  • The General Rules of the Methodist Societies;[27]
  • The Standard Sermons of John Wesley;[26]
  • John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the New Testament.[26]

These Doctrinal Standards are constitutionally protected and nearly impossible to change or remove.[26] The founder of the Methodist Church, the Rev. John Wesley recognized none as Methodists who did not recognize the named Standards of Doctrine.[28] Other doctrines of the United Methodist Church are found in the Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church.

Summary of basic beliefs

The basic beliefs of The United Methodist Church include:

  • Triune God. God is one God in three persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit.[29]
  • Scripture. The writings in the Old Testament and New Testament are the inspired word of God.
  • Sin. While human beings were intended to bear the image of God, all humans are sinners for whom that image is distorted. Sin estranges people from God and corrupts human nature such that we cannot heal or save ourselves.[30]
  • Salvation through Jesus Christ. God's redeeming love is active to save sinners through Jesus' incarnate life and teachings, through his atoning death, his resurrection, his sovereign presence through history, and his promised return.[30]
  • Sanctification. The grace of sanctification draws one toward the gift of Christian perfection, which Wesley described as a heart "habitually filled with the love of God and neighbor" and as "having the mind of Christ and walking as he walked."[31]
  • Sacraments. The UMC recognizes two sacraments: Holy Baptism and Holy Communion. Other rites such as Confirmation, Ordination, Holy Matrimony, Funerals, and Anointing of the Sick are performed but are not considered sacraments. In Holy Baptism, the Church believes that "Baptism is not only a sign of profession and mark of difference whereby Christians are distinguished from others that are not baptized; but it is also a sign of regeneration or the new birth.[32] It believes that Baptism is a sacrament in which God initiates a covenant with individuals,[33] people become a part of the Church,[33] is not to be repeated,[33] and is a means of grace.[34] The United Methodist Church generally practices Baptism by sprinkling, pouring, or immersion[35] and recognizes Trinitarian formula[36] baptisms from other Christian denominations.[37] The United Methodist Church affirms the real presence of Christ in Holy Communion, but does not hold to transubstantiation.[38] The church believes that the bread is an effectual sign of His body crucified on the cross and the cup is an effectual sign of His blood shed for humanity.[39] Through the outward and visible signs of bread and wine, the inward and spiritual reality of the Body and Blood of Christ are offered to believers. The church holds that the celebration of the Eucharist is an anamnesis of Jesus’ death,[40] and believes the sacrament to be a means of grace,[41] and practices open communion.[42]
  • Free will. The UMC believes that people, while corrupted by sin, are free to make their own choices because of God's divine grace enabling them, and that people are truly accountable before God for their choices.
  • Social Justice. The church opposes evils such as slavery, inhumane prison conditions, capital punishment, economic injustice, child labor, racism, and inequality.[43]
  • Grace. The UMC believes that God gives unmerited favor freely to all people, though it may be resisted.

Distinctive Wesleyan emphases

The key emphasis of Wesley's theology relates to how Divine grace operates within the individual. Wesley defined the Way of Salvation as the operation of grace in at least three parts: Prevenient Grace, Justifying Grace, and Sanctifying Grace.

Prevenient grace, or the grace that "goes before" us, is given to all people. It is that power which enables us to love and motivates us to seek a relationship with God through Jesus Christ.[44] This grace is the present work of God to turn us from our sin-corrupted human will to the loving will of the Father. In this work, God desires that we might sense both our sinfulness before God and God’s offer of salvation. Prevenient grace allows those tainted by sin to nevertheless make a truly free choice to accept or reject God's salvation in Christ.[44]

Jesus Christ on the cross. The justifying grace cancels our guilt and empowers us to resist the power of sin and to fully love God and neighbor. Today, justifying grace is also known as conversion, "accepting Jesus as your personal Lord and Savior," or being "born again".[44][45] John Wesley originally called this experience the New Birth.[46] This experience can occur in different ways; it can be one transforming moment, such as an altar call experience,[47] or it may involve a series of decisions across a period of time.[48]

Sanctifying Grace is that grace of God which sustains the believers in the journey toward Christian Perfection: a genuine love of God with heart, soul, mind, and strength, and a genuine love of our neighbors as ourselves. Sanctifying grace enables us to respond to God by leading a Spirit-filled and Christ-like life aimed toward love. Wesley never claimed this state of perfection for himself but instead insisted the attainment of perfection was possible for all Christians. Here the English Reformer parted company with both Luther and Calvin, who denied that a man would ever reach a state in this life in which he could not fall into sin. Such a man can lose all inclination to evil and can gain perfection in this life.[49]

Wesleyan theology maintains that salvation is the act of God's grace entirely, from invitation, to pardon, to growth in holiness. Furthermore, God's prevenient, justifying, and sanctifying grace interact dynamically in the lives of Christians from birth to death.

According to Wesleyan understanding, good works were the fruit of one's salvation, not the way in which that salvation was earned. Faith and good works go hand in hand in Methodist theology: a living tree naturally and inevitably bears fruit. Wesleyan theology rejects the doctrine of eternal security, believing that salvation can be rejected.[50] Wesley emphasized that believers must continue to grow in their relationship with Christ, through the process of Sanctification.

A key outgrowth of this theology is the United Methodist dedication not only to the Evangelical Gospel of repentance and a personal relationship with God, but also to the Social Gospel and a commitment to social justice issues that have included abolition, women's suffrage, labor rights, civil rights, and ministry with the poor.

Characterization of Wesleyan theology

Wesleyan theology stands at a unique cross-roads between evangelical and sacramental, between liturgical and charismatic, and between Anglo-Catholic and Reformed theology and practice. It has been characterized as Arminian theology with an emphasis on the work of the Holy Spirit to bring holiness into the life of the participating believer. The United Methodist Church believes in prima scriptura, seeing the Holy Bible as the primary authority in the Church and using sacred tradition, reason, and experience to interpret it, with the aid of the Holy Spirit (see Wesleyan Quadrilateral).[51] Therefore, according to The Book of Discipline, United Methodist theology is at once "catholic, evangelical, and reformed."[52] Today, the UMC is generally considered one of the more moderate and tolerant denominations with respect to race, gender, and ideology, though the denomination itself actually includes a very wide spectrum of attitudes. Comparatively, the UMC stands to the right of liberal and progressive Protestant groups such as the United Church of Christ and the Episcopal Church on certain issues (especially regarding sexuality), but to the left of historically conservative evangelical traditions such as the Southern Baptists and Pentecostalism, in regard to theological matters such as social justice and Biblical interpretation. However, it should be noted that the UMC is made up of a broad diversity of thought, and so there are many clergy and laity within the UMC that hold differing viewpoints on such theological matters.

Diversity within beliefs

In making an appeal to a toleration of diversity of theological opinion, John Wesley said, "Though we may not think alike, may we not all love alike?" The phrase "In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity" has also become a maxim among Methodists, who have always maintained a great diversity of opinion on many matters within the Church.

The United Methodist Church allows for a wide range of theological and political beliefs. For example, former R-TX) and Laura Bush are United Methodists, and former Vice President Dick Cheney (R-WY) attends a United Methodist Church, but is not a member. Senator Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton (D-NY) and former Senator Max Cleland (D-GA) are also United Methodists. Many practicing United Methodists believe this flexibility is one of the UMC's strongest qualities.

Social issues


The United Methodist Church upholds the sanctity of human life both of the child and the mother. As a result, the church is "reluctant to affirm abortion as an acceptable practice,"[53] and condemns the use of late-term or partial birth abortion except as a medical necessity.[53] The denomination as a whole is committed to "assist[ing] the ministry of crisis pregnancy centers and pregnancy resource centers that compassionately help women find feasible alternatives to abortion."[54]

The church also holds that they "are equally bound to respect the sacredness of the life and well-being of the mother, for whom devastating damage may result from an unacceptable pregnancy. In continuity with past Christian teaching, we recognize tragic conflicts of life with life that may justify abortion, and in such cases we support the legal option of abortion under proper medical procedures."[53] As such, two official bodies of the United Methodist Church are part of the Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice's governing coalition, The General Board of Church and Society, and the United Methodist Women.[55] The church therefor generally opposes any legal restriction on abortion, though it cautions that "Governmental laws and regulations do not provide all the guidance required by the informed Christian conscience."[53] The Church emphasizes the need to be in supportive ministry with all women, regardless of their choice.[53]

Members of the United Methodist Church who identify with the Taskforce of United Methodists on Abortion and Sexuality (TUMAS) to further their position within the denomination.[56]


Historically, the Methodist Church has supported the temperance movement.[57] John Wesley warned against the dangers of drinking in his famous sermon, "The Use of Money,"[58] and in his letter to an alcoholic.[59][60] At one time, Methodist ministers had to take a pledge not to drink and encouraged their congregations to do the same.[61] Today the United Methodist Church states that it "affirms our long-standing support of abstinence from alcohol as a faithful witness to God's liberating and redeeming love for persons."[60] In fact, the United Methodist Church uses unfermented grape juice in the sacrament of Holy Communion, thus "expressing pastoral concern for recovering alcoholics, enabling the participation of children and youth, and supporting the church's witness of abstinence."[62] Moreover, in 2011 and 2012, The United Methodist Church's General Board of Church and Society called on all United Methodists to abstain from alcohol for Lent.[63][64][65]

Capital punishment

The United Methodist Church, along with other Methodist churches, condemns capital punishment, saying that it cannot accept retribution or social vengeance as a reason for taking human life.[66] The Church also holds that the death penalty falls unfairly and unequally upon marginalized persons including the poor, the uneducated, ethnic and religious minorities, and persons with mental and emotional illnesses.[67] The United Methodist Church also believes that Jesus explicitly repudiated the lex talionis in Matthew 5:38-39 and abolished the death penalty in John 8:7.[66] The General Conference of the United Methodist Church calls for its bishops to uphold opposition to capital punishment and for governments to enact an immediate moratorium on carrying out the death penalty sentence.


The United Methodist Church opposes gambling, believing that it is a sin which feeds on human greed and which invites people to place their trust in possessions, rather than in God, whom Christians should "love ... with all your heart."[68] It quotes the Apostle Paul who states:
But those who want to be rich fall into temptation and are trapped by many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, and in their eagerness to be rich some have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many pains.
1 Tim. 6:9-10a
The United Methodist Church therefore holds that:
  • Gambling is a menace to society, deadly to the best interests of moral, social, economic, and spiritual life, and destructive of good government. As an act of faith and concern, Christians should abstain from gambling and should strive to minister to those victimized by the practice.[68]
  • Where gambling has become addictive, the Church will encourage such individuals to receive therapeutic assistance so that the individual's energies may be redirected into positive and constructive ends.[68]
  • The Church should promote standards and personal lifestyles that would make unnecessary and undesirable the resort to commercial gambling—including public lotteries—as a recreation, as an escape, or as a means of producing public revenue or funds for support of charities or government.[68]


The United Methodist Church has a strong history of disagreement about the topic of homosexuality. While the quadrennial voting bodies (known as General Conference) have voted consistently on the issue, there has been much disagreement within the body of the Church. Such disagreement has risen to the point of calling for a split in the church on multiple occasions, and such action has been adopted.

According to The United Methodist Book of Discipline (set by General Conference every four years), the Church "affirm[s] that all persons are individuals of sacred worth, created in the image of God" and encourages United Methodists to be in ministry with and for all people.[69]

In accordance with its view of Scripture,[70] the Church officially considers, "the practice of homosexuality (to be) incompatible with Christian teaching." It states that "self-avowed practicing homosexuals" cannot be ordained as ministers,[71] and supports "…laws in civil society that define marriage as the union of one man and one woman."[72][73][74]

In addition, the United Methodist Church prohibits the celebration of quadrennium). Legislative changes are recorded in The Book of Discipline which is revised after each General Conference. Non-legislative resolutions are recorded in the Book of Resolutions, which is published after each General Conference, and expire after eight years unless passed again by a subsequent session of General Conference. The last General Conference was held in Tampa, Florida, in 2012.[106] The event is currently rotated between the U.S. jurisdictions of the church. The 2016 General Conference will be in Portland, Oregon.[107] Bishops, Councils, Committees, Boards, Elders, etc., are not permitted to speak on behalf of The United Methodist Church as this authority is reserved solely for the General Conference in accordance with the Book of Discipline.

The plenary session is presided over by an active bishop who has been selected by committee of delegates to the Conference. It is not uncommon for different bishops to preside on different days. The presiding officer usually is accompanied by parliamentarians.[108]

Jurisdictional and Central Conferences

Subordinate to the General Conference are Jurisdictional and Central Conferences which also meet every four years. The United States is divided into five jurisdictions: Northeastern, Southeastern, North Central, South Central and Western. Outside the United States the church is divided into seven central conferences: Africa, Congo, West Africa, Central & Southern Europe, Germany, Northern Europe and the Philippines. The main purpose of the jurisdictions and central conferences is to elect and appoint bishops, the chief administrators of the church. Bishops thus elected serve Episcopal Areas, which consist of one or more Annual Conferences.

Decisions in between the four-year meetings are made by the Mission Council (usually consisting of church bishops). One of the most high profile decisions in recent years by one of the Councils was a decision by the Mission Council of the South Central Jurisdiction which in March 2007 approved a 99-year lease of 36 acres (150,000 m2) at Iraq War which the church bishops have criticized.[109] A debate over whether the decision should or could be submitted for approval by the Southern Jurisdictional Conference at its July 2008 meeting in Dallas, Texas remains unresolved.[110]

Judicial Council

The Judicial Council is the highest court in the denomination. It consists of nine members, both laity and clergy, elected by the General Conference for an eight-year term. The ratio of laity to clergy alternates every eight years.[111] The Judicial Council interprets the Book of Discipline between sessions of General Conference, and during General Conference, the Judicial Council rules on the constitutionality of laws passed by General Conference. The Council also determines whether actions of local churches, annual conferences, church agencies, and bishops are in accordance with church law. The Council reviews all decisions of law made by bishops[112] The Judicial Council cannot create any legislation; it can only interpret existing legislation. The Council meets twice a year at various locations throughout the world. The Judicial Council also hears appeals from those who have been accused of chargeable offenses that can result in defrocking or revocation of membership.

Annual Conference

The Clergy are members of their Annual Conference rather than of any local congregation, and are appointed to a local church or other charge annually by the conference's resident Bishop at the meeting of the Annual Conference. In many ways, the United Methodist Church operates in a connectional organization of the Annual Conferences, and actions taken by one conference are not binding upon another.


Annual conferences are further divided into Districts, each served by a District Superintendent. The district superintendents are also appointed annually from the ordained elders of the Annual Conference by the bishop. District superintendents, upon completion of their service as superintendent, routinely return to serving local congregations. The Annual Conference cabinet is composed of the bishop and the district superintendents.

Local churches

The Book of Discipline is the guidebook for local churches and pastors and describes in considerable detail the organizational structure of local United Methodist churches. All UM churches must have a board of trustees with at least three members and no more than nine members and it is recommended that no gender should hold more than a 2/3 majority. All churches must also have a nominations committee, a finance committee and a church council or administrative council. Other committees are suggested but not required such as a missions committee, or evangelism or worship committee. Term limits are set for some committees but not for all. The church conference is an annual meeting of all the officers of the church and any interested members. This committee has the exclusive power to set pastors' salaries (call them compensation packages for tax purposes) and to elect officers to the committees.

Administrative offices

Interchurch Center in New York City, headquarters of the GBGM, GCCUIC and UMCOR

There is no official headquarters of church although many of its biggest administrative offices are in Nashville, Tennessee and are physically located near Vanderbilt University (which has historic Methodist ties but is no longer associated with the church).

While the

  • Official website
  • United Methodist Church at DMOZ

External links

  • Norwood, Fredrick A., ed. Sourcebook of American Methodism (1982)
  • Richey, Russell E., Rowe, Kenneth E. and Schmidt, Jean Miller (eds.) The Methodist Experience in America: a sourcebook, (2000) ISBN 0-687-24673-3 – 756 p. of original documents
  • Sweet, William Warren (ed.) Religion on the American Frontier: Vol. 4, The Methodists,1783-1840: A Collection of Source Materials, (1946) 800 p. of documents regarding the American frontier

Primary sources

  • Cameron, Richard M. (ed.) (1961) Methodism and Society in Historical Perspective, 4 vol., New York: Abingdon Press
  • Hatch, Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity (1989) credits the Methodists and Baptists for making Americans more equalitarian
  • Lyerly, Cynthia Lynn Methodism and the Southern Mind, 1770-1810, (1998)
  • Mathews, Donald G. Slavery and Methodism: A Chapter in American Morality, 1780-1845 (1965)
  • Mathews-Gardner, A. Lanethea. "From Ladies Aid to NGO: Transformations in Methodist Women's Organizing in Postwar America," in Laughlin, Kathleen A., and Jacqueline L. Castledine, eds., Breaking the Wave: Women, Their Organizations, and Feminism, 1945-1985 (2011) pp. 99–112
  • McDowell, John Patrick. The Social Gospel in the South: The Woman's Home Mission Movement in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1886-1939 (1982)
  • Meyer, Donald The Protestant Search for Political Realism, 1919-1941, (1988) ISBN 0-8195-5203-8
  • Norwood, John Nelson. The Schism in the Methodist Episcopal Church 1844: A Study of Slavery and Ecclesiastical Politics (Porcupine Press, 1976)
  • Richey, Russell E. Early American Methodism (1991)
  • Richey, Russell E. and Kenneth E. Rowe, eds. Rethinking Methodist History: A Bicentennial Historical Consultation (1985), historiographical essays by scholars
  • Robert, Dana L., and David W. Scott. "World Growth of the United Methodist Church in Comparative Perspective: A Brief Statistical Analysis." Methodist Review 3 (2011): 37-54.
  • Schmidt, Jean Miller Grace Sufficient: A History of Women in American Methodism, 1760-1939, (1999)
  • Schneider, A. Gregory. The Way of the Cross Leads Home: The Domestication of American Methodism (1993)
  • Stevens, Abel. History of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States of America (1884) online
  • Sweet, William Warren Methodism in American History, (1954) 472pp.
  • Teasdale, Mark R. Methodist Evangelism, American Salvation: The Home Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1860-1920 (Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2014)
  • Tucker, Karen B. Westerfield. American Methodist Worship (2001)
  • Wigger, John H. Taking Heaven by Storm: Methodism and the Rise of Popular Christianity in America, (1998) 269pp; focus on 1770-1910
  • Wigger, John H.. and Nathan O. Hatch, eds. Methodism and the Shaping of American Culture (2001)
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  55. ^ Coalition Members | Religious Coalition For Reproductive Choice. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
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  63. ^ "Lent: United Methodist Church Calls for 'Alcohol Free' Season".  
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  65. ^ Fleet, Josh (March 21, 2011). "Methodists Shun The Bottle During Alcohol-Free Lent". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 17, 2012. Now, the denomination's General Board of Church and Society is following Howell's lead and is pushing a churchwide Alcohol Free Lent campaign. 
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  68. ^ a b c d "Gambling". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
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  71. ^ The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church-2008,¶304.3
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  73. ^ a b c "What is the denomination’s position on homosexuality?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  74. ^ Book of Discipline 2008, "Social Principles, ¶161.B "
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  76. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (December 19, 2013). "Defrocking of Minister Widens Split Over Gays". New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  77. ^ "Human Sexuality". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved September 18, 2011. The United Methodist Church does not condone the practice of homosexuality and consider this practice incompatible with Christian teaching. We affirm that God’s grace is available to all. We will seek to live together in Christian community, welcoming, forgiving, and loving one another, as Christ has loved and accepted us. We implore families and churches not to reject or condemn lesbian and gay members and friends. We commit ourselves to be in ministry for and with all persons. 
  78. ^ Banerjee, Neela (December 3, 2004). "United Methodists Move to Defrock Lesbian". New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2007. 
  79. ^ "United Methodist Church (UMC): The trial of Irene Elizabeth Stroud". Religious Tolerance. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  80. ^ "Judicial Council denies reconsideration of two decisions". The United Methodist News Service (UMNS). Retrieved December 24, 2007. 
  81. ^ "What is The United Methodist Church's position on just war?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 8 June 2007. 
  82. ^ a b "Military Service". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  83. ^ "2081. Pornography and Sexual Violence". United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  84. ^ "What's Wrong with Pornography?". United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  85. ^ a b c "Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research".  
  86. ^ a b "War and Peace". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved June 24, 2007. 
  87. ^ Works of John Wesley, vol. XVI, page 304
  88. ^ American Methodist worship.  
  89. ^ American Methodist worship.  
  90. ^ World Almanac & Book of Facts. World Almanac Books. Retrieved 2007-12-31. Conference and superintendent system; in United Methodist Church, general superintendents ... healing and sometimes exorcism; adult baptism; Lord's Supper 
  91. ^ Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 21 November 2012. Indeed, anyone who has participated in the revivals and prayer-meetings and consultations and exorcisms of the United Methodist churches in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, which are addressed in the chapters by Mukonyora and Cruz e Silva, will know how very evangelical they are. 
  92. ^ American Methodist worship.  
  93. ^ 2008 Book of Discipline paragraph 1114.3
  94. ^ The United Methodist Hymnal page 7
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  109. ^ "Bishop criticizes press, White House on Iraq——Retrieved February 3, 2008". February 8, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
  110. ^ "Bush library opponents question process for approval——February 1, 2008". February 1, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2012. 
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  114. ^ Separated brethren: a review of Protestant, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox & other religions in the United States. Among Protestant denominations, Methodists take first place in hospitals and colleges. Some of their one hundred colleges and universities have all but severed ties with the denominations, but others remain definitely Methodist: Syracuse, Boston, Emory, Duke, Drew, Denver, and Southern Methodist. 
  115. ^ The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2008
  116. ^ "Maud Jensen, 1904-1998". Retrieved August 15, 2012. 
  117. ^ "Why Do United Methodists Ordain Women When the Bible Specifically Prohibits it?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved March 19, 2007. 
  118. ^ "Women’s Service in the Church: The Biblical Basis". St. John’s College. Retrieved July 8, 2009. 
  119. ^ The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2008, ¶¶ 602, 315.
  120. ^ "Local Pastor". General Board of Higher Education & Ministry (UMC). Retrieved July 8, 2009. 
  121. ^ The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2004 para. 225.
  122. ^ The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2004 para. 216a&b.
  123. ^ The United Methodist Book of Discipline, 2004, para. 252k.
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  125. ^ "A History of the Office of Lay Speaker in United Methodism" (PDF). The United Methodist Church GBOD. Retrieved August 1, 2007. 
  126. ^ a b c d "Lay Speaking Ministry in the United Methodist Church" (PDF). The United Methodist Church GBOD. Retrieved August 1, 2007. 
  127. ^ . The United Methodist Church GBOD title = Certified Lay Minister title = Certified Lay Minister. Retrieved October 6, 2014. 
  128. ^ "Wesleyan Essentials of Christian Faith" August 18, 2009
  129. ^ The rebirth of orthodoxy: signs of new life in Christianity.  
  130. ^  
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  132. ^ "Methodists yes to full communion with Lutherans; no on gay change". Ecumenical News International. Retrieved May 16, 2007. 
  133. ^ "Actions: 2009 ELCA Churchwide Assembly • Aug. 17-23, 2009 • Minneapolis, Minn.". The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Retrieved August 23, 2009. 
  134. ^ "ELCA Assembly Adopts Full Communion with the United Methodist Church". The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Retrieved August 23, 2009. 
  135. ^ "UMC, ELCA conclude dialogue, look toward votes". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved May 16, 2007. 
  136. ^ "Mission". Commission on Pan-Methodist Cooperation & Union. Retrieved August 1, 2007. 
  137. ^ Banks, Adelle M. (7 May 2012). "Methodists Reach Across Historic Racial Boundaries with Communion Pact". Christianity Today. Retrieved 11 November 2012. 
  138. ^ "The Methodist Church in India: Bangalore Episcopal Area". The United Methodist Church GBGM. Retrieved October 18, 2007. 
  139. ^ "India Methodists celebrate 150 years of ministry". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved October 18, 2007. 
  140. ^ "Participating Denominations". Retrieved December 31, 2007. Brethren in Christ Church, Christian & Missionary Alliance, Christian & Missionary Alliance - Canada, Church of God - Anderson, Church of God - Cleveland, Church of the Nazarene, Free Methodist Church, Shield of Faith, The Evangelical Church, The Foursquare Church, The Salvation Army, The Wesleyan Church, United Methodist Church 
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  142. ^ "Methodists adopt Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification". Catholic News Service (CNS). Retrieved June 8, 2007. 
  143. ^ a b c "Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches"Historic Archive CD and . The National Council of Churches. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  144. ^ a b "2000 Religious Congregations and Membership Study". Glenmary Research Center. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  145. ^ a b c Tooley, Mark (November 2008). "African Power".  
  146. ^ a b c Tooley, Mark (May 21, 2010). "Resenting African Christianity".  
  147. ^ a b (2008) The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church


See also

Individuals may also choose to give to the church by naming The Permanent Fund for The United Methodist Church as beneficiary in their estate plans. The Permanent Fund provides a permanent source of funding for the ministries of The United Methodist Church.[147]

Contributions to the local church not only benefit the local congregation, but also have regional, national, and international impact through The United Methodist Church's connectional giving system. The power of this collective giving enables the church to spread the love of Jesus Christ, educate clergy, encourage cooperation with other faith communions, fund General Conference, nurture historically Black colleges and Africa University, and support bishops.[147]

Churchwide Giving

By the opening of the 2008 General Conference, total UMC membership was estimated at 11.4 million, with about 7.9 million in the U.S. and 3.5 million overseas. Significantly, about 20% of the conference delegates were from Africa, with Filipinos and Europeans making up another 10%.[145] During the conference, the delegates voted to finalize the induction of the Methodist Church of the Ivory Coast and its 700,000 members into the denomination.[145] Given current trends in the UMC—with overseas churches growing, especially in Africa, and U.S. churches collectively losing about 1,000 members a week[146]—it has been estimated that Africans will make up at least 30% of the delegates at the 2012 General Conference,[145] and it is also possible that 40% of the delegates will be from outside the U.S.[146] One Congolese bishop has estimated that typical Sunday attendance of the UMC is higher in his country than in the entire United States.[146]

Like many other mainline Protestant denominations in the United States, the United Methodist Church has experienced significant membership losses in recent decades. At the time of its formation, the UMC had about 11 million members in nearly 42,000 congregations.[143] In 1975, membership dropped below 10 million for the first time.[143] In 2005, there were about 8 million members in over 34,000 congregations.[143] Membership is concentrated primarily in the Midwest and in the South. Texas has the largest number of members, with about 1 million.[144] The states with the highest membership rates are Oklahoma, Iowa, Mississippi, West Virginia, and North Carolina.[144]

Membership trends

The UMC is also a member of the Wesleyan Holiness Consortium, which seeks to reconceive and promote Biblical holiness in today's Church.[140] It is also active in the World Methodist Council, an interdenominational group composed of various churches in the tradition of John Wesley to promote the Gospel throughout the world. On July 18, 2006, delegates to the World Methodist Council voted unanimously to adopt the "Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification", which was approved in 1999 by the Vatican and the Lutheran World Federation.[141][142]

There are also a number of churches such as the Methodist Church in India (MCI), that are "autonomous affiliated" churches in relation to the United Methodist Church.[138][139]

The United Methodist Church has since 1985 been exploring a possible merger with three historically African-American Methodist denominations: the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, and the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.[5] A Commission on Pan Methodist Cooperation and Union formed in 2000 to carry out work on such a merger.[136] In May 2012, The United Methodist Church entered into full communion with the African Methodist Episcopal Church, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, African Union Methodist Protestant Church, Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, and Union American Methodist Episcopal Church, in which these Churches agreed to "recognize each other’s churches, share sacraments, and affirm their clergy and ministries."[137]

In April 2005, the United Methodist Council of Bishops approved "A Proposal for Interim Eucharistic Sharing." This document was the first step toward full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA). The ELCA approved this same document in August 2005.[131] At the 2008 General Conference, the United Methodist Church approved full communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[132] The ELCA approved this document on August 20, 2009 at its annual churchwide assembly.[133][134][135]

The United Methodist Church is one tradition within the Christian Church.[128] The United Methodist Church is active in ecumenical relations with other Christian groups and denominations. It is a member of the National Council of Churches, the World Council of Churches, Churches Uniting in Christ, and Christian Churches Together. In addition, it voted to seek observer status in the National Association of Evangelicals and in the World Evangelical Fellowship.[129] However, there are some in The United Methodist Church who feel that false ecumenism might result in the "blurring of theological and confessional differences in the interests of unity."[130]

Ecumenical relations

A person wishing to become a CLM enters the certification process, which includes training, support, supervision, and accountability to the District Committee on Ordained Ministry. CLMs are laypeople serving out their call as disciples of Jesus Christ. They are neither full- nor part-time clergy.[127]title = Certified Lay Minister

The 2004 General Conference created another class of ministry, the Certified Lay Minister (CLM). CLMs are not considered clergy but instead remain lay members of the United Methodist Church. A Certified Lay Minister (CLM) is a qualified United Methodist layperson called to congregational leadership as part of a ministry team under the supervision a clergyperson. Paragraph 271 in the 2012 Book of Discipline explains Certified Lay Ministry, requirements, and service distinction.

Certified Lay Minister

Another position in the United Methodist Church is that of the lay servant. Although not considered clergy, lay speakers often preach during services of worship when an ordained elder, Local Pastor, Associate Member or deacon is unavailable.[124][125] There are two categories of lay servants: local church lay servant,[126] who serve in and through their local churches, and certified lay servants, who serve in their own churches, in other churches, and through district or conference projects and programs.[126] To be recognized as local church lay servant, they must be recommended by their pastor and Church Council or Charge Conference, and complete the basic course for lay servant. Each year they must reapply, reporting how they have served and continued to learn during that year.[126] To be recognized as certified lay servant, they must be recommended by their pastor and Church Council or Charge Conference, complete the basic course and one advanced lay servant course, and be interviewed by the District or Conference Committee on Lay Speaking. They must report and reapply annually; and they must complete at least one advanced course every three years.[126]

Lay Servant

Additionally, Laity may serve the church in several distinct roles including:

[123] In a

Lay members are extremely important in the UMC. The Professing Members are part of all major decisions in the church. General, Jurisdictional, Central, and Annual Conferences are all required to have an equal number of laity and clergy.

Unlike confirmation and profession of faith, Baptism is a sacrament in the UMC. The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church directs the local church to offer membership preparation or confirmation classes to all people, including adults.[122] The term confirmation is generally reserved for youth, while some variation on membership class is generally used for adults wishing to join the church. The Book of Discipline normally allows any youth at least completing sixth grade to participate, although the pastor has discretionary authority to allow a younger person to participate. In confirmation and membership preparation classes, students learn about Church and the Methodist-Christian theological tradition in order to profess their ultimate faith in Christ.

The United Methodist Church (UMC) practices infant and adult baptism. Baptized Members are those who have been baptized as an infant or child, but who have not subsequently professed their own faith. These Baptized Members become Professing Members through confirmation and sometimes the profession of faith. Individuals who were not previously baptized are baptized as part of their profession of faith and thus become Professing Members in this manner. Individuals may also become a Professing Member through transfer from another Christian denomination.[121]

There are two classes of lay membership in the UMC: Baptized Members and Professing Members.


Upon retirement, local pastors return to their charge conference as lay members. If a local pastor was ordained a Deacon then s/he is retained as a member of the Annual Conference and accountable to a local charge conference as clergy members and may vote in the Annual Conference.

Local Pastors are called by God, affirmed by the church, and appointed by a bishop to a ministry of Word, Sacrament, Order and Service within the church. The Local Pastor are given the authority to preach the Word of God, administer the sacraments of the church, to provide care and counseling, and to order the life of the church for ministry and mission, but are not ordained. When elders are not available to be appointed to a local church, either through shortage of personnel or financial hardship of a pastoral charge, the bishop may appoint a “local pastor” to serve the pastoral appointment. Local Pastors are often bi-vocational, living out their ministerial call in the local church and in their field of employment. Full-time and part-time licensed local pastors under appointment are clergy and hold membership in the annual conference and not in the local church. A Local Pastor's official title is 'Licensed Local Pastor' licensed for pastoral ministry and appointed as clergy to the local church where they preach, conduct divine worship and perform the regular duties of a pastor.[119] The licensed local pastor has the authority of a pastor only within the context and during the time of the appointment and shall not extend beyond it.[120] Local pastors are not required to have advanced degrees but are required to attend licensing school and attend and pass an approved five-year course of study at an approved United Methodist seminary or course of study school, successfully complete written and oral examinations, and appear before the District Committee on Ministry and the Conference Board of Ordained Ministry. They may continue towards Associate Membership allowing them to retire as clergy. They also may continue towards ordained elder if they complete their bachelors degree, requirements of their particular Conference Board of Ordained Ministry, as well as either an advanced course or study or prescribed seminary courses at an approved United Methodist seminary. (There are local pastors who were ordained as Deacons. These are being phasing out because the Local Pastor, which is a non-ordained position, can no longer be an ordained Deacon.)

Local pastors

At the 1996 General Conference the ordination order of transitional deacon was abolished. This created new orders known as "provisional elder" or "provisional deacon" for those who seek to be ordained in the respective orders. The provisional elder/deacon is a seminary graduate who serves a two-three-year term in a full-time appointment after being commissioned. During this two or three-year period, the provisional elder is granted sacramental ministry in their local appointment. For the first time in its history non-ordained pastors became a normal expectation, rather than an extraordinary provision for ministry.

Provisional clergy

Deacons are called by God, affirmed by the church, and ordained by a bishop to servant leadership within the church.They are ordained to ministries of word,service, compassion, and justice. They may be appointed to ministry within the local church or to an extension ministry that supports the mission of the church. Deacons should give leadership, preach the Word, contribute in worship, conduct marriages, bury the dead, and aid the church in embodying its mission within the world. Deacons assist elders in the sacraments of Holy Communion and Baptism, and may be granted sacramental authority if they are appointed as the pastor in a local church. Deacons serve a term of 2–3 years as provisional deacons prior to their ordination.


Elders are called by God, affirmed by the church, and ordained by a bishop to a ministry of Word, Sacrament, Order and Service within the church. They may be appointed to the local church, or to other valid extension ministries of the church. Elders are given the authority to preach the Word of God, administer the sacraments of the church, to provide care and counseling, and to order the life of the church for ministry and mission. Elders may also be assigned as District Superintendents, and they are eligible for election to the episcopacy. Elders serve a term of 2–3 years as provisional Elders prior to their ordination.


All campus ministry, missions, higher education and other ministries beyond the local church are often even longer.


The Methodist Church has allowed ordination of women with full rights of clergy since 1956, when Maud Jensen was ordained and admitted into full connection in the Central Pennsylvania Annual Conference.[116] This action was based upon its understanding of biblical principles.[117] The United Methodist Church, along with some other Protestant churches, holds that when the historical contexts involved are understood, a coherent Biblical argument can be made in favor of women's ordination.[118]

Ordination of women

The first Methodist clergy were ordained by John Wesley, a minister in the Anglican Church, because of the crisis caused by the American Revolution which isolated the Methodists in the States from the Church of England and its sacraments. Today, the clergy includes men and women who are ordained by bishops as elders and deacons and are appointed to various ministries. Elders in the United Methodist Church itenerate and are subject to the authority and appointment of their bishops. They generally serve as pastors in local congregations. Deacons are in service ministry and may serve as musicians, liturgists, educators, business administrators, and a number of other areas. Elders and deacons are required to obtain a master's degree (generally an M.Div.), or another equivalent degree, before commissioning and then ultimately ordination. Elders in full connection are each a member of their Annual Conference Order of Elders. Likewise each deacon in full connection is a member of their Annual Conference Order of Deacons.[115]


Certified lay ministers may also be appointed to serve a church but under the supervision and direction of an Elder.

There are two types of Deacons. A Diaconal deacon is a full member of the conference and is considered ordained. Whereas a Deacon who is an ordained local pastor with a further training is not a full member of the conference but is considered an associate member. Local Pastors as Deacons are phasing out and only Diaconal ministers can currently be ordained Deacon. The term Associate Pastor has remained but no longer is considered ordained. All local/Associate pastors baptize and serve communion under the auspices of a District Elder or called the District Superintendent. Local and associate pastors can not vote for General Conference delegates either as lay persons or clergy. Neither do they have a vote in matters of Doctrine in the General Conference issues. They have no representation in General Conference unless they serve in a committee in the General Conference by invitation. All Local Pastors are accountable to an Elder. All clergy are accountable to each other by use of an 'honor system' or covenant. If a clergy breaks this covenant or 'honor system' charges can be initiated but efforts of reconciliation are primary. Rarely is a pastor disciplined if found in violation of the discipline of the church.

United Methodist Clergy consist of Elders, Local Pastors, Associate Members and Deacons. They hold membership in the annual conference and not in the local church. Additionally provisional clergy hold membership in the annual conference while they are under appointment to a local church or extension ministry. There are several offices of ministry within the United Methodist Church.


Throughout its history, the United Methodist Church has placed great emphasis on the importance of education. As such, the United Methodist Church established and is affiliated with around one hundred colleges and universities in the United States, including Syracuse University, Boston University, Emory University, Duke University, Drew University, Denver University, and Southern Methodist University.[114] The church operates three hundred sixty schools and institutions overseas.


[113] The United Methodist Church is organized into conferences. The highest level is called the

General Conference

Zion United Methodist church in Denmark, WI, United States.
  • General Conference—The legislative branch that makes all decisions as to doctrine and polity.
  • Council of Bishops—When taken into consideration along with the various general agencies of the church, takes on a role similar to an executive branch. The Council of Bishops consists of all active and retired bishops and meets twice a year. According to the Book of Discipline 2000, "The Church expects the Council of Bishops to speak to the Church and from the Church to the world, and to give leadership in the quest for Christian unity and interreligious relationships."[103] The council is presided over by a President who serves a two-year term. The President has no official authority beyond presiding. Administrative work is handled by the secretary of the council.[104]
  • Judicial Council—The judicial branch consisting of nine persons elected by the General Conference to rule on questions of constitutionality in church law and practice.[105]

The church is decentralized with the General Conference being the official governing body. However, administratively the church has a governing structure that is similar to that of the United States government:


Hartzell Memorial United Methodist church in Chicago, United States.


explicitly rejects "invocation of saints" (praying to saints). The text reads: The United Methodist Articles of ReligionArticle XIV of

Methodist institutions may be named after a biblical figure (e.g., "St. James UMC"). Methodists also honor notable heroes and heroines of the Christian faith and look to these prominent saints as providing examples of holy living and commitment to Christ that are worthy of imitation (see 1 Corinthians 11:1). Such exemplary saints include martyrs, confessors of the Faith, evangelists, or important biblical figures such as Saint Matthew, Lutheran theologian and martyr to the Nazis Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Salvation Army Founder William Booth, African missionary David Livingstone and Methodism's revered founder John Wesley are among many cited as Protestant saints.[101]

The United Methodist Church's understanding of a "saint" is not unique among Protestants, yet differs significantly from the Roman Catholic view. Methodists do not have a process for electing people to sainthood. They do not pray to saints, nor do they believe that saints serve as mediators to God. The denomination considers all faithful Christians to be saints.


  • Benediction
  • Closing Prayer
  • Extinguishing of the Candles
  • Choral Response
  • The Recessional
  • Postlude

Going Forth

  • Affirmation of Faith
  • Litany of Response
  • Altar Call and Conversion
  • Invitation to Discipleship
  • Offertory
  • Doxology
  • Hymn of Response



The Prayers


A typical United Methodist Order of Worship would include many of the following elements roughly in the order given:[100]

Order of Worship

The chancel of United Methodist churches usually features a lectern and baptismal font on one side of the altar table and a pulpit on the other side.[97] The chancel also features the Christian Flag and sometimes, a processional cross.[98][99]

Many larger United Methodist congregations have incorporated more contemporary styles of music and audio-visual technology into some of their worship services, though these churches generally also offer more traditional services.

  • Singing. Since the days of Charles Wesley, the hymn-writer and early Methodist leader, lively singing has been, and remains, an important aspect of United Methodist worship.
  • A Biblical Message. Listening to the reading of Scripture and a sermon based upon the Biblical text is virtually always included in United Methodist worship. Many United Methodist churches follow the Revised Common Lectionary for their Sunday Bible readings.
  • Prayer. Many churches include a time of response or a prayer time in which people may share concerns or pray with ministers. This time of response may include celebrations of baptism, confirmation, or profession of faith.[94]
  • Holy Communion. Some congregations celebrate communion on the first Sunday of the month and a few celebrate it only quarterly. A growing number of congregations celebrate the sacrament of Holy Communion on a weekly basis, as John Wesley himself encouraged his followers to practice.[95] In adopting the statement on Holy Communion entitled This Holy Mystery in 2004, the General Conference of the Church urged congregations to move toward weekly celebration of communion and to use the official liturgies of the church when doing so.[96]
  • Giving. Almost every service has an opportunity for those gathered to give of their "tithes and offerings" to support the ministry of that particular congregation. Through apportionments, a portion of those gifts go to Christian ministries that have a national and/or global impact.

Typical worship services in United Methodism will include:

Like other historic Christian churches, The United Methodist Church has official liturgies for services of Holy Communion, baptism, weddings, funerals, ordination, anointing of the sick and daily office prayer services. Some clergy offer healing services, while exorcism is an occasional practice by some clergy in The United Methodist Church in Africa.[88][89][90][91] These services involve the laying on of hands and anointing with oil.[92] Along with these, there are also special services for holy days such as All Saints Day, Ash Wednesday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter Vigil. These services are contained in The United Methodist Hymnal and The United Methodist Book of Worship (1992).[93] Many of these liturgies are derived from the Anglican tradition's Book of Common Prayer. In most cases, congregations also use other elements of liturgical worship, such as candles, vestments, paraments, banners, and liturgical art.

When the Methodists in America were separated from the Church of England, John Wesley himself provided a revised version of The Book of Common Prayer called the Sunday Service of the Methodists in North America. Wesley's Sunday Service has shaped the official liturgies of the Methodists ever since.

The common pattern comes from John Wesley who wrote that

The United Methodist Church includes a variety of approaches to public worship. The common pattern of worship is found in the official liturgies of the church, while the practices of congregations across the denomination are quite diverse.

An Advent wreath in the chancel of Broadway United Methodist Church, located in New Philadelphia, Ohio, USA.

Worship and liturgy

The United Methodist Church maintains that war is incompatible with Christ's message and teachings. Therefore, the Church rejects war as an instrument of national foreign policy, to be employed only as a last resort in the prevention of such evils as genocide, brutal suppression of human rights, and unprovoked international aggression.[86] It insists that the first moral duty of all nations is to resolve by peaceful means every dispute that arises between or among them; that human values must outweigh military claims as governments determine their priorities; that the militarization of society must be challenged and stopped; that the manufacture, sale, and deployment of armaments must be reduced and controlled; and that the production, possession, or use of nuclear weapons be condemned. Consequently, the United Methodist Church endorses general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.[86]


The UMC supports federal funding for research on embryos created for IVF that remain after the procreative efforts have ceased, if the embryos were provided for research instead of being destroyed, were not obtained by sale, and those donating had given prior informed consent for the research purposes.[85] The UMC stands in "opposition to the creation of embryos for the sake of research" as "a human embryo, even at its earliest stages, commands our reverence."[85] It supports research on stem cells retrieved from umbilical cords and adult stem cells, stating that there are "few moral questions" raised by this issue.[85]

Stem cell research

The United Methodist Church teaches that pornography is "about violence, degradation, exploitation, and coercion" and "deplore[s] all forms of commercialization, abuse, and exploitation of sex."[83] The Sexual Ethics Task Force of The United Methodist Church states that "Research shows it [pornography] is not an 'innocent activity.' It is harmful and is generally addictive. Persons who are addicted to pornography are physiologically altered, as is their perspective, relationships with parishioners and family, and their perceptions of girls and women."[84]


The United Methodist Church opposes conscription as incompatible with the teaching of Scripture.[82] Therefore, the Church supports and extends its ministry to those persons who conscientiously oppose all war, or any particular war, and who therefore refuse to serve in the armed forces or to cooperate with systems of military conscription. However, the United Methodist Church also supports and extends its ministry to those persons who conscientiously choose to serve in the armed forces or to accept alternative service. The church also states that "as Christians they are aware that neither the way of military action, nor the way of inaction is always righteous before God."[82]

, The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist ChurchAccording to

Military service

In 1987, a United Methodist church court in New Hampshire defrocked Methodist minister Rose Mary Denman for openly living with a same-sex partner.[78] In 2005, clergy credentials were removed from Irene Elizabeth Stroud after she was convicted in a church trial of violating church law by engaging in a lesbian relationship; this conviction was later upheld by the Judicial Council, the highest court in the denomination.[79] The Judicial Council also affirmed that a Virginia pastor had the right to deny local church membership to a man in an openly gay relationship. This affirmation, however, was based upon a senior pastor's right to judge the readiness of a congregant to join as a full member of the church.[80]

[77] Nevertheless, The United Methodist Church "implore[s] families and churches not to reject or condemn lesbian and gay members and friends" and commits itself to be in

[76] Other ministers have been defrocked for officiating at same-sex weddings and several trials of others are scheduled.[73]

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