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United Nations General Assembly member states

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United Nations General Assembly member states


There are Template:UNnum United Nations (UN) member states, and each of them is a member of the United Nations General Assembly.[2]

The criteria for admission of new members are set out in the United Nations Charter, Chapter II, Article 4:[3]

  1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
  2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

A recommendation for admission from the Security Council requires affirmative votes from at least nine of the council's fifteen members, with none of the five permanent members voting against. The Security Council's recommendation must then be subsequently approved in the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority vote.[4]

In principle, only sovereign states can become UN members, and currently all UN members are sovereign states (although a few members were not sovereign when they joined the UN). Because a state can only be admitted to the UN by the approval of the Security Council and the General Assembly, a number of states that may be considered sovereign states according to the Montevideo Convention criteria are not members because the UN does not consider them to possess sovereignty, mainly due to the lack of international recognition or opposition from certain members.

In addition to the member states, the UN also invites non-member states (currently two: the Holy See and Palestine), intergovernmental organizations, and other international organizations and entities whose statehood or sovereignty are not precisely defined, to become observers at the General Assembly, allowing them to participate and speak, but not vote, in General Assembly meetings.

Original members


Further information: History of the United Nations

The UN officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, after ratification of the United Nations Charter by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and a majority of the other signatories.[6] A total of 51 original members (or founding members) joined that year; 50 of them signed the Charter at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco on 26 June 1945, while Poland, which was not represented at the conference, signed it on 15 October 1945.[7]

Among the original members, 49 are either still UN members or had their memberships in the UN continued by a successor state (see table below); for example, the membership of the Soviet Union was continued by the Russian Federation after its dissolution (see the section Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The other two original members, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia (i.e., the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), had been dissolved and their memberships in the UN not continued by any one successor state (see the sections Former members: Czechoslovakia and Former members: Yugoslavia).

At the time of UN's founding, the seat of China in the UN was held by the Republic of China, but as a result of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, it is now held by the People's Republic of China (see the section Former members: Republic of China).

A number of the original members were not sovereign when they joined the UN, and only gained full independence later:[8]

Current members

Further information: List of sovereign states

The current members and their dates of admission are listed below with their official designations used by the United Nations.[10][11]

The alphabetical order by the member states' official designations is used to determine the seating arrangement of the General Assembly sessions, where a draw is held each year to select a member state as the starting point.[12] Several members use their full official names in their official designations and thus are sorted out of order from their common names: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of Moldova, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (a provisional reference used for all purposes within the UN, and listed under T), and the United Republic of Tanzania.

The member states can be sorted by their official designations and dates of admission by clicking on the buttons in the header of the columns. See related sections on former members by clicking on the links in the column See also.

Original members are listed with blue background and in bold.

Member state Date of admission See also
 Afghanistan Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Albania Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Algeria Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Andorra Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Angola Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Antigua and Barbuda Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Argentina Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Armenia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Australia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Australia and the United Nations
 Austria Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Azerbaijan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Bahamas Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Bahrain Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Bangladesh Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Barbados Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Belarus Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Belgium Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Belize Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Benin [note 1] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Bhutan Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) [note 2] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yugoslavia
 Botswana Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Brazil Template:Dts/outdmy1 Brazil and the United Nations
 Brunei Darussalam Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Bulgaria Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Burkina Faso [note 3] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Burundi Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Cambodia [note 4] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Cameroon [note 5] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Canada Template:Dts/outdmy1 Canada and the United Nations
 Cape Verde Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Central African Republic [note 6] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Chad Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Chile Template:Dts/outdmy1
 China Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Republic of China and China and the United Nations
 Colombia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Comoros Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Congo [note 7] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Democratic Republic of the Congo [note 8] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Costa Rica Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Côte d'Ivoire [note 9] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Croatia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yugoslavia
 Cuba Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Cyprus Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Czech Republic Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Czechoslovakia
 Denmark Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Djibouti Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Dominica Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Dominican Republic Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Ecuador Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Egypt Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: United Arab Republic
 El Salvador Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Equatorial Guinea Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Eritrea Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Estonia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Ethiopia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Fiji Template:Dts/outdmy1 Fiji and the United Nations
 Finland Template:Dts/outdmy1
 France Template:Dts/outdmy1 France and the United Nations
 Gabon Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Gambia [note 10] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Georgia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Germany Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: German Democratic Republic and Germany and the United Nations
 Ghana Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Greece Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Grenada Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Guatemala Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Guinea Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Guinea-Bissau Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Guyana Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Haiti Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Honduras Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Hungary Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Iceland Template:Dts/outdmy1
 India Template:Dts/outdmy1 India and the United Nations
 Indonesia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966) and Indonesia and the United Nations
 Iran (Islamic Republic of) [note 11] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Iraq Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Ireland Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Israel Template:Dts/outdmy1 Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations
 Italy Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Jamaica Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Japan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Japan and the United Nations
 Jordan Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Kazakhstan [note 12] Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Kenya Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Kiribati Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Democratic People's Republic of Korea Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Republic of Korea Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Kuwait Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Kyrgyzstan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Lao People's Democratic Republic [note 13] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Latvia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Lebanon Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Lesotho Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Liberia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Libya[13][note 14] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Liechtenstein Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Lithuania Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Luxembourg Template:Dts/outdmy1
 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yugoslavia
 Madagascar [note 15] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Malawi Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Malaysia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Federation of Malaya
 Maldives [note 16] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Mali Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Malta Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Marshall Islands Template:Dts/outdmy1 Marshall Islands and the United Nations
 Mauritania Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Mauritius Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Mexico Template:Dts/outdmy1 Mexico and the United Nations
 Micronesia (Federated States of) Template:Dts/outdmy1 Federated States of Micronesia and the United Nations
 Republic of Moldova [note 17] Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Monaco Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Mongolia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Montenegro Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yugoslavia
 Morocco Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Mozambique Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Myanmar [note 18] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Namibia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Nauru Template:Dts/outdmy1
   Nepal Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Netherlands Template:Dts/outdmy1
 New Zealand Template:Dts/outdmy1 New Zealand and the United Nations
 Nicaragua Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Niger Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Nigeria Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Norway Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Oman Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Pakistan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Pakistan and the United Nations
 Palau Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Panama Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Papua New Guinea Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Paraguay Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Peru Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Philippines [note 19] Template:Dts/outdmy1 Philippines and the United Nations
 Poland Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Portugal Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Qatar Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Romania Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Russian Federation Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Soviet Union and the United Nations and Russia and the United Nations
 Rwanda Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Saint Kitts and Nevis [note 20] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Saint Lucia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Samoa Template:Dts/outdmy1
 San Marino Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Sao Tome and Principe [note 21] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Saudi Arabia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Senegal Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Serbia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yugoslavia
 Seychelles Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Sierra Leone Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Singapore Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Malaysia
 Slovakia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Czechoslovakia
 Slovenia Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yugoslavia
 Solomon Islands Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Somalia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 South Africa [note 22] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 South Sudan Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Spain Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Sri Lanka [note 23] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Sudan Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Suriname [note 24] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Swaziland Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Sweden Template:Dts/outdmy1
  Switzerland Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Syrian Arab Republic Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: United Arab Republic
 Tajikistan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 United Republic of Tanzania Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Tanganyika and Zanzibar
 Thailand [note 25] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Timor-Leste Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Togo Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Tonga Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Trinidad and Tobago Template:Dts/outdmy1 Trinidad and Tobago and the United Nations
 Tunisia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Turkey Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Turkmenistan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Tuvalu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Tuvalu and the United Nations
 Uganda Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Ukraine Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 United Arab Emirates Template:Dts/outdmy1
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Template:Dts/outdmy1 United Kingdom and the United Nations
 United States of America Template:Dts/outdmy1 United States and the United Nations
 Uruguay Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Uzbekistan Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Vanuatu Template:Dts/outdmy1 Vanuatu and the United Nations
 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) [note 26] Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Viet Nam Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Yemen Template:Dts/outdmy1 Former members: Yemen and Democratic Yemen
 Zambia Template:Dts/outdmy1
 Zimbabwe Template:Dts/outdmy1

Former members

Republic of China

Further information: China and the United Nations

The Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[14] In 1949, as a result of the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang-led ROC government lost effective control of mainland China and relocated to Taiwan, and the Communist Party-led government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), declared on 1 October 1949, took control of mainland China. The UN was notified on 18 November 1949 of the formation of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China; however, the Government of the Republic of China continued to represent China at the UN, despite the small size of the ROC's jurisdiction of Taiwan and a number of smaller islands compared to the PRC's jurisdiction of mainland China. As both governments claimed to be the sole legitimate representative of China, proposals to effect a change in the representation of China in the UN were not approved for the next two decades, as the ROC was still recognized as the sole legitimate representative of China by a majority of UN members.

By the 1970s, a shift had occurred in international diplomatic circles and the PRC had gained the upper hand in international diplomatic relations and recognition count. On 25 October 1971, the 21st time the United Nations General Assembly debated on the PRC's admission into the UN,[15] United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, by which it recognized that "the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations and that the People's Republic of China is one of the five permanent members of the Security Council," and decided "to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representatives of its Government as the only legitimate representatives of China to the United Nations, and to expel forthwith the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations and in all the organizations related to it."[16] This effectively transferred the seat of China in the UN, including its permanent seat on the Security Council, from the ROC to the PRC, and expelled the ROC from the UN. From the United Nations' perspective the "Republic of China" is not a former member. No UN member was expelled in 1971. Rather, the credentials of one Chinese delegation (from Taipei) were rejected and the credentials of another Chinese delegation (from Beijing) were accepted.

Bids for readmission as the representative of Taiwan

Between 1993 and 2007, the ROC repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the UN as the representative of Taiwan, instead of as the representative of China, using the designation "Republic of China on Taiwan" (used by the Kuomintang-led administration under Lee Teng-hui), "Republic of China (Taiwan)" (used by the Democratic Progressive Party-led administration under Chen Shui-bian), or "Taiwan" (used by the administration under Chen Shui-bian for the first time in 2007). In its application, the ROC government has called on the international community to "recognize the right of the 23 million people of Taiwan to representation in the United Nations system".[17] However, all fifteen attempts were denied, either because the petition failed to get sufficient votes to get on the formal agenda, or because the application was rejected by the UN, due primarily to the opposition of the PRC.

Responding to the ROC's application in 2007, which was rejected by the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs citing General Assembly Resolution 2758,[18] Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon stated that:[19]

With the understanding of the Governor and the Chairman, I will briefly mention that membership into the UN ultimately needs to be decided by the Member States of the United Nations. Membership is given to a sovereign country. The position of the United Nations is that the People's Republic of China is representing the whole of China as the sole and legitimate representative Government of China. The decision until now about the wish of the people in Taiwan to join the United Nations has been decided on that basis. The resolution (General Assembly Resolution 2758) that you just mentioned is clearly mentioning that the Government of China is the sole and legitimate Government and the position of the United Nations is that Taiwan is part of China.

Responding to the UN's rejection of its application, the ROC government has stated that Taiwan is not now nor has it ever been under the jurisdiction of the PRC, and that since General Assembly Resolution 2758 did not clarify the issue of Taiwan's representation in the UN, it does not prevent Taiwan's participation in the UN as an independent sovereign nation.[20] The ROC government also criticized Ban for asserting that Taiwan is part of China and returning the application without passing it to the Security Council or the General Assembly,[21] contrary to UN's standard procedure (Provisional Rules of Procedure of the Security Council, Chapter X, Rule 59).[22] On the other hand, the PRC government, which has stated that Taiwan is part of China and firmly opposes the application of any Taiwan authorities to join the UN either as a member or an observer, praised that UN's decision "was made in accordance with the UN Charter and Resolution 2758 of the UN General Assembly, and showed the UN and its member states' universal adherence to the one-China principle".[23]

In May 2009, the Department of Health of the Republic of China was invited by the World Health Organization to attend the 62nd World Health Assembly as an observer under the name "Chinese Taipei". This was the ROC's first participation in an event organized by a UN-affiliated agency since 1971, as a result of the improved cross-strait relations since Ma Ying-jeou became the President of the Republic of China a year before.[24]

The Republic of China is Template:Numrec and the Holy See.

Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, with its name changed to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic on 20 April 1990. Upon the imminent dissolution of Czechoslovakia, in a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as successor states, would apply for membership in the UN. Neither state sought sole successor state status. Both states were admitted to the UN on 19 January 1993.[25]

German Democratic Republic

Both the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) were admitted to the UN on 18 September 1973. Through the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the territory of the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany, today simply known as Germany. Consequently, the Federal Republic of Germany continued being a member of the UN while the German Democratic Republic ceased to exist.[25]

Federation of Malaya

The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957. On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Tanganyika was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1961, and Zanzibar was admitted to the UN on 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of the Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states merged to form the single member "United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar", with its name changed to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.[25][26]

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945, and as set out by the United Nations Charter, Chapter V, Article 23, became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[14] Upon the imminent dissolution of the USSR, in a letter dated 24 December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of the USSR in the Security Council and all other UN organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.[25]

The other fourteen independent states established from the former Soviet Republics were all admitted to the UN:

United Arab Republic


Both Egypt and Syria joined the UN as original members on 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership in the UN. Egypt continued as a UN member under the name of the United Arab Republic, until it reverted to its original name on 2 September 1971. Syria changed its name to the Syrian Arab Republic on 14 September 1971.[25]

Yemen and Democratic Yemen

Yemen (i.e., North Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 30 September 1947; Southern Yemen (i.e., South Yemen) was admitted to the UN on 14 December 1967, with its name changed to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen on 30 November 1970, and was later referred to as Democratic Yemen. On 22 May 1990, the two states merged to form the Republic of Yemen, which continued as a single member under the name Yemen.[25]

Yugoslavia


The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, referred to as Yugoslavia, joined the UN as an original member on 24 October 1945. By 1992, it had been effectively dissolved into five independent states, which were all subsequently admitted to the UN:

Due to the dispute over its legal successor states, the member state "Yugoslavia", referring to the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, remained on the official roster of UN members for many years after its effective dissolution.[25] Following the admission of all five states as new UN members, "Yugoslavia" was removed from the official roster of UN members.

The government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, established on 28 April 1992 by the remaining Yugoslav republics of Montenegro and Serbia,[30] claimed itself as the legal successor state of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;[31] however, on 30 May 1992, United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 was adopted, by which it imposed international sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia due to its role in the Yugoslav Wars, and noted that "the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations has not been generally accepted,"[32] and on 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly".[33][34] The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia refused to comply with the resolution for many years, but following the ousting of President Slobodan Milošević from office, it applied for membership, and was admitted to the UN on 1 November 2000.[29] On 4 February 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had its official name changed to Serbia and Montenegro, following the adoption and promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[35]

On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006. In a letter dated on the same day, the President of Serbia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that the membership of Serbia and Montenegro in the UN was being continued by Serbia, following Montenegro's declaration of independence, in accordance with the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro.[36] Montenegro was admitted to the UN on 28 June 2006.[37]

In the aftermath of the Kosovo War, the territory of Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia, was put under the interim administration of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo on 10 June 1999. On 17 February 2008 it declared independence, but this has not been recognised by Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo is not a member of the UN, but is a member of the International Monetary Fund[38] and the World Bank Group,[39] both specialized agencies in the United Nations System. The Republic of Kosovo is Template:Numrec, including three of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (France, the United Kingdom, and the United States), while the other two—China and Russia—do not recognise Kosovo. On 22 July 2010, the International Court of Justice, the primary judicial organ of the UN, issued an advisory opinion, ruling that Kosovo's declaration of independence was not in violation of international law.[40]

Suspension, expulsion, and withdrawal of members

A member state may be suspended or expelled from the UN, according to the United Nations Charter. From Chapter II, Article 5:[3]

A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council.

From Article 6:[3]

A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Since its inception, no member state has been suspended or expelled from the UN under Articles 5 and 6. However, in a few cases, states were suspended or expelled from participating in UN activities by means other than Articles 5 and 6:

  • On 25 October 1971, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was adopted, by which recognized the People's Republic of China instead of the Republic of China as the legitimate representative of China in the UN and effectively expelled the Republic of China from the UN in 1971 (see the section Former members: Republic of China). This act did not constitute as the expulsion of a member state under Article 6, as this would have required Security Council approval and been subjected to vetoes by its permanent members, which included the Republic of China itself and the United States, which at that time still recognized the Republic of China.[41]
  • In October 1974, the Security Council considered a draft resolution that would have recommended that the General Assembly immediately expel South Africa from the UN, in compliance with Article 6 of the United Nations Charter, due to its apartheid policies.[25] However, the resolution was not adopted because of vetoes by three permanent members of the Security Council: France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In response, the General Assembly decided to suspend South Africa from participation in the work of the Assembly's 29th session on 12 November 1974; however, South Africa was not formally suspended under Article 5. The suspension lasted until the General Assembly welcomed South Africa back to full participation in the UN on 23 June 1994, following its successful democratic elections earlier that year.[42]
  • On 28 April 1992, the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established, by the remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 22 September 1992, United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/1 was adopted, by which it considered that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) cannot continue automatically the membership of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the United Nations," and therefore decided that "the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) should apply for membership in the United Nations and that it shall not participate in the work of the General Assembly". It did not apply for membership until Slobodan Milošević was ousted from the presidency and was admitted on 1 November 2000 (see the section Former members: Yugoslavia).

Withdrawal of Indonesia (1965–1966)


Since the inception of the UN, only one member state (excluding those that dissolved or merged with other member states) has unilaterally withdrawn from the UN. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, and in response to the election of Malaysia as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, in a letter dated 20 January 1965, Indonesia informed the United Nations Secretary-General that it had decided "at this stage and under the present circumstances" to withdraw from the UN. However, following the overthrow of the Indonesian regime led by President Sukarno, in a telegram dated 19 September 1966, Indonesia notified the Secretary-General of its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities starting with the twenty-first session of the General Assembly". On 28 September 1966, the United Nations General Assembly took note of the decision of the Government of Indonesia and the President invited the representatives of that country to take their seats in the Assembly.[25]

Unlike suspension and expulsion, no express provision is made in the United Nations Charter of whether or how a member can legally withdraw from the UN (largely to prevent the threat of withdrawal from being used as a form of political blackmail, or to evade obligations under the Charter, similar to withdrawals that weakened the UN's predecessor, the League of Nations),[41] or on whether a request for readmission by a withdrawn member should be treated the same as an application for membership, i.e., requiring Security Council as well as General Assembly approval. Indonesia's return to the UN would suggest that this is not required; however, scholars have argued that the course of action taken by the General Assembly was not in accordance with the Charter from a legal point of view.[43]

Observers and non-members

In addition to the member states, there are two non-member permanent observer states: the Holy See and the State of Palestine.[44]

  • The Holy See holds sovereignty over the state of Vatican City and maintains diplomatic relations with 180 other states. It has been an observer state since 6 April 1964,[45] and gained all the rights of full membership except voting on 1 July 2004.[46]
  • Palestine was recognized as a "non-member state" on 29 November 2012, when the UN General Assembly passed United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 by a vote of 138 to 9, with 41 abstentions.[47][48] The Palestine Liberation Organization was previously granted observer status as a ""non-member entity"" on 22 November 1974.[49] The change in status was described by The Independent as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".[50] Acknowledging the proclamation of the State of Palestine by the Palestine National Council on 15 November 1988, the United Nations General Assembly decided that, effective as of 15 December 1988, the designation "Palestine" should be used in place of the designation "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the United Nations System.[51] On 23 September 2011, Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas submitted the Palestinian application for UN membership to United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon;[52] the application has yet to be voted on by the Security Council. On 31 October 2011, the General Assembly of UNESCO voted to admit Palestine as a member, becoming the first UN agency to admit Palestine as a full member.[53] The Palestinian territories of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, occupied by Israel with parts of them governed by the Palestinian National Authority, have historically been referred to by the UN as the "Occupied Palestinian Territory"[54] and other similar designations, and still are in many cases, although the UN recently permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as 'The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations',[55] and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports,[56][57] whilst it instructed its diplomats to officially represent 'The State of Palestine', as opposed to the 'Palestine National Authority'.[57] Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents".[44]

A number of states were also granted observer status before being admitted to the UN as full members (see United Nations General Assembly observers for the full list).[58][59][60] The most recent case of an observer state becoming a member state was Switzerland, which was admitted in 2002.[61]

A European Union institution, the European Commission, was granted observer status at the UNGA through Resolution 3208 in 1974. The Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 resulted in the delegates being accredited directly to the EU.[62] It was accorded full rights in the General Assembly, bar the right to vote and put forward candidates, via UNGA Resolution A/RES/65/276 on 10 May 2011.[63] It is the only non-state party to over 50 multilateral conventions, and has participated as a full member in every way except for having a vote in a number of UN conferences.[64]

The sovereignty status of Western Sahara is in dispute between Morocco and the Polisario Front. Most of the territory is controlled by Morocco, the remainder (the Free Zone) by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, proclaimed by the Polisario Front. Western Sahara is listed by the UN as a "non-self-governing territory".[65]

The Cook Islands and Niue, which are both associated states of New Zealand, are not members of the UN, but are members of specialized agencies of the UN such as WHO[66] and UNESCO,[67] and signatories of international treaties such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change[68] and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,[69] and are treated as non-member states.[70][71]

See also

Notes

References

External links

  • United Nations
    • About UN Membership
    • Member States of the United Nations
    • Growth in United Nations membership, 1945–present
    • UN Member States on the Record

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