World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Vaps Movement

Vaps Movement
Leader Andres Larka and Artur Sirk
Founded 1929
Ideology Estonian nationalism,[1]
Politics of Estonia
Political parties

Vaps Movement,[2] (

  • Webpage about Vaps Movement
  • "The radical right in interwar Estonia" By Andres Kasekamp

External links

  • Andres Kasekamp. 2000. The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia. London: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-22598-9
  • Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Jeremy Mitchell, Varrak (2000). "Estonia: Crisis and 'Pre-Emptive Authoritarianism". Conditions of democracy in Europe, 1919-39: systematic case-studies. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 109–128.  
  1. ^ "The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia". Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c "Vaps". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Conclusions of Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity
  4. ^ a b c d A History of Fascism, 1914-1945 By Stanley George Payne ISBN 1-85728-595-6
  5. ^ T. Parming, The Collapse of Liberal Democracy and the Rise of Authoritarianism in Estonia, London, 1975
  6. ^ Marandi, Rein "Must-valge lipu all : Vabadussõjalaste liikumine Eestis 1929-1937. 1. Legaalne periood (1929-1934)" Stockholm : Centre for Baltic Studies at the University of Stockholm, 1991
  7. ^ S. Payne, A history of Fascism, 1914-1945, Routledge, 1995
  8. ^ Eesti Vabariigi arengulugu aastatel 1918–1940
  9. ^ "The Radical Right in Interwar Estonia". Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  10. ^ Postimees 15 April 2009 22:27: Jüri Liim taastab vapsiliikumise
  11. ^ "Vabadussõjalaste Keskliit jätkab tegevust ajaloolise nimega". Postimees. 7 July 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 


See also

Jüri Liim claimed to be restoring the original Vaps Movement.[10] But he didn't get a registration and his organization is illegal.[11]

In recent times

They have had a good relationship with the Finland's nationalist movements such as Lapua Movement, Patriotic People's Movement and Academic Karelia Society.[9]

Foreign relations

Members of the movement used the Roman salute and wore black berets as symbols of their allegiance to the organisation.

General Andres Larka speaking 1933.


The league was banned and disbanded in December 1935. On 6 May 1936, 150 members of the league went on trial; 143 of them were convicted and sentenced to lengthy terms of imprisonment. They were granted an amnesty and freed in 1938, by which time the league had lost most of its popular support. By 1 January 1938, a new constitution took effect and new parliament was elected in February 1938.[7][8] The new constitution combined a strong President with a partly elected and partly appointed, officially non-partisan Parliament.[4]

[4] In an October 1933

Vaps Movement meeting in Pärnu Estonia, Artur Sirk speaking
Constitutional reform The league rejected [5][4] They had no elaborate ideology or any connection with foreign fascist movements, their goal was simply a more authoritarian and nationalist government in Estonia.[4] The Vaps Movement was a paramilitary anti-socialist organisation with most of its base being the lower middle class.



  • Ideology 1
  • Constitutional reform 2
  • Symbols 3
  • Foreign relations 4
  • In recent times 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

. Artur Sirk (formal figurehead and presidential candidate) and Andres Larka The leaders of this association were [2]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.