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Vicente Guerrero

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Subject: Guadalupe Victoria, Afro-Mexican, Anastasio Bustamante, Provisional Government of Mexico (1823–24), Afro-Latin American
Collection: 1782 Births, 1820S in Mexico, 1831 Deaths, 19Th-Century Mexican People, 19Th-Century Rulers in North America, Executed Presidents, Mexican Generals, Mexican People Executed by Firing Squad, Mexican Presidential Candidates (1828), Mexican Revolutionaries, Military Personnel from Guerrero, People Executed by Mexico by Firing Squad, People from Guerrero, People of the Mexican War of Independence, People of Wars of Independence of the Americas, Politicians from Guerrero, Presidents of Mexico, Recipients of the Order of Guadalupe, Recipients of the Order of Guadalupe (Mexican Empire)
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Vicente Guerrero

Vicente Guerrero
A half-length, posthumous portrait by Anacleto Escutia (1850)

2nd President of Mexico
In office
April 1, 1829 – December 17, 1829
Vice President Anastasio Bustamante
Preceded by Guadalupe Victoria
Succeeded by José María Bocanegra
Member of the Supreme Executive Power
In office
April 1, 1823 – October 10, 1824
Preceded by Constitutional Monarchy
Agustín I
Succeeded by Federal Republic
Guadalupe Victoria
Personal details
Born Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña
August 10, 1782
Tixtla, Guerrero, New Spain
Died February 14, 1831(1831-02-14) (aged 48)
Cuilapan, Oaxaca, Mexico
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) María de Guadalupe Hernández
Children María de los Dolores Guerrero Hernández
Profession Military Officer
Politician
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance Army of the Three Guarantees
Mexico
Service/branch Mexican Army
Years of service 1810–1821
Rank General
Lieutenant colonel
Captain
Commands Mexican War of Independence
Battles/wars Battle of El Veladero
Siege of Cuautla
Battle of Izúcar
Siege of Huajuapan de León
Battle of Zitlala
Capture of Oaxaca
Siege of Acapulco

Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (Spanish: ; August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and later served as President of Mexico. Of Afro-Mestizo descent, he was the grandfather of the Mexican politician and intellectual Vicente Riva Palacio.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Marriage and family 2
  • Career 3
  • Legacy 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Early life

Guerrero was born in Tixtla, a town 100 kilometers inland from the port of Acapulco, in the Sierra Madre del Sur; his parents were Pedro Guerrero, a Mestizo, and María de Guadalupe Saldaña, of African descent.[1][2][3] His father's family included landlords, rich farmers and traders with broad business connections in the south, members of the Spanish militia and gun and cannon makers. In his youth he worked for his father’s freight business. His travels took him to different parts of Mexico where he heard of the ideas of independence.

Vicente’s father, Pedro, supported Spanish rule, whereas his uncle, Diego Guerrero, had an important position in the Spanish militia. As an adult, Vicente was opposed to the Spanish colonial government. When his father asked him for his sword in order to present it to the viceroy of New Spain as a sign of goodwill, Vicente refused, saying, "The will of my father is for me sacred, but my Fatherland is first." "Mi patria es primero" is now the motto of the southern Mexican state of Guerrero, named in honor of the revolutionary.

Marriage and family

He married María de Guadalupe Hernández and they had children. Their daughter María de los Dolores Guerrero Hernández married Mariano Riva Palacio, who was the defense lawyer of Maximilian I of Mexico in Querétaro, and was the mother of Vicente Riva Palacio.

Career

Profile portrait of Vicente Guerrero on an early 19th century snuffbox (enamelled brass on lacquered wood)

In 1810 Guerrero joined in the early revolt against Spain, first fighting alongside Izúcar, in February 1812, and had achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel when Oaxaca was claimed by rebels in November 1812.

"A young man with bronzed (N.B. "broncínea", lit. bronze-coloured, swarthy), tall and strong (N.B. "fornido", strapping, muscular), aquiline nose, bright and light-coloured eyes and big sideburns"
— physical description of Vicente Guerrero Saldaña by José María Morelos y Pavón, 1811

Following the capture and execution of Morelos in late 1815, Guerrero joined forces with Guadalupe Victoria and Isidoro Montes de Oca, taking the position of "Commander in Chief of the rebel troops. He remained the only major rebel leader still at large, keeping the rebellion going through an extensive campaign of guerrilla warfare. He won victories at Ajuchitán, Santa Fe, Tetela del Río, Huetamo, Tlalchapa and Cuautlotitlán, regions of southern Mexico that were very familiar to him.

Oil painting of Vicente Guerrero, by Ramón Sagredo (1865)

When Mexico achieved independence in 1821, Guerrero at first collaborated with Agustín de Iturbide, who proposed that the two join forces under what he referred to as the Three Guarantees or El plan de Iguala. This plan gave civil rights to Indians but not to African Mexicans. Guerrero refused to sign the plan unless equal rights were also given to African Mexicans and mulattos. Clause 12 was incorporated into the plan. It read: All inhabitants . . . without distinction of their European, African or Indian origins are citizens . . . with full freedom to pursue their livelihoods according to their merits and virtues.[4]

Iturbide and Guerrero eventually agreed on these goals: Mexico would be an independent constitutional monarchy, class distinctions should be abolished among Spaniards, creoles, mestizos and Indians; and Catholicism would be the state religion. Iturbide entered the capital on 27 September 1821,[5] and was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico by Congress. However, when Iturbide's policies supported the interests of Mexico's wealthy landowners through continued economic exploitation of the poor and working classes, Guerrero turned against him. He favored a Republic with the Plan of Casa Mata.

When the general Manuel Gómez Pedraza won the election to succeed Guadalupe Victoria as president, Guerrero, with the aid of general Antonio López de Santa Anna and politician Lorenzo de Zavala,[6] staged a coup d'état; he took the presidency on 1 April 1829.[7]

Guerrero, as head of the People’s Party and a liberal by conviction, called for public schools, land title reforms, industry and trade development, and other programs of a liberal nature:

"A free state protects the arts, industry, science and trade; and the only prizes virtue and merit: if we want to acquire the latter, let's do it cultivating the fields, the sciences, and all that can facilitate the sustenance and entertainment of men: let's do this in such a way that we will not be a burden for the nation, just the opposite, in a way that we will satisfy her needs, helping her to support her charge and giving relief to the distraught of humanity: with this we will also achieve abundant wealth for the nation, making her prosper in all aspects."
— Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña, Speech to his compatriots
"....A man who is held up as ostensible head of the party, and who will be their candidate for the next presidency, is General Guerrero, one of the most distinguished chiefs of the revolution. Guerrero is uneducated, but possesses excellent natural talents, combined with great decision of character and undaunted courage. His violent temper renders him difficult to control, and therefore I consider Zavala's presence here indispensably necessary, as he possesses great influence over the general."
— Joel R. Poinsett, US minister for Mexico (i.e. Ambassador), about the character of Vicente Guerrero

Guerrero was elected the second president of Mexico in 1829. As president, Guerrero championed the causes of the racially oppressed and economically oppressed. He ordered an immediate abolition of slavery on September 16 of 1829.[8] and emancipation of all slaves. During Guerrero's presidency, the Spanish tried to reconquer Mexico, but they failed, being defeated at the Battle of Tampico.

"This is the most liberal and munificent Government on earth to emigrants – after being here one year you will oppose a change even to Uncle Sam"
— Stephen Fuller Austin, 1829, letter to his sister describing Guerrero's Government of Mexico (and Texas)

Guerrero was deposed in a rebellion under Vice-President Anastasio Bustamante that began on 4 December 1829. He left the capital to fight the rebels, but was deposed by the Mexico City garrison in his absence on 17 December 1829. Guerrero hoped to come back to power, but General Bustamante captured him from his home through bribery, and a group of reactionaries had him executed.

After his death, Mexicans loyal to Guerrero revolted, driving Bustamante from his presidency and forcing him to flee for his life. Picaluga, a former friend of Guerrero who had conspired with Bustamante to have the president captured, was executed.

Honors were conferred on surviving members of Guerrero's family, and a pension was paid to his widow. In 1842, Vicente Guerrero's remains were exhumed and returned to Mexico City for reinterment. He is known for his political discourse promoting equal civil rights for all Mexican citizens. He has been described as the "greatest man of color" to ever live.[9]

Legacy

Statue in honor of Vicente Guerrero in Nuevo Laredo

Guerrero is a Mexican national hero. The state of Guerrero is named in his honour.

Several towns in Mexico are named in honor of this famous general, including Vicente Guerrero in Baja California.

See also

References

  1. ^ Vincent, Theodore G. (2001). The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico's First Black Indian President. University of Florida Press. pp. 8–12. 
  2. ^ Sprague, William Forrest (1939). Vicente Guerrero, Mexican Liberator: A Study in Patriotism. R. R. Donnelley - Mexico. p. 42. 
  3. ^ "Research Reveals the African-Indigenous Heritage of Mexican President Vicente Guerrero | Pathways to Freedom in the Americas". Mlktaskforcemi.org. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2013-09-02. 
  4. ^ Vincent, Theodore G. (2001). The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico's First Black Indian President. University of Florida Press. pp. 94–96. 
  5. ^ Henderson, Timothy J (2009). The Mexican Wars for Independence. Hill and Wang. p. 178.  
  6. ^ Henderson, Timothy J (2008). A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and Its War with the United States. Hill and Wang. p. 62.  
  7. ^ Katz, William Loren. "The Majestic Life of President Vicente Ramon Guerrero". William Loren Katz. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Sprague, William Forrest. "Coahuila y Texas Under President Vicente Guerrero". TAMU. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  9. ^ Vincent, Theodore G. (2001). The Legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico's First Black Indian President. University of Florida Press. p. 81. 

Bibliography

  • Enrique González Pedrero, País de un solo hombre: el México de Santa Anna. Volumen II : La sociedad de fuego cruzado 1829-1836 : Fondo de Cultura Económica. ISBN 968-16-6377-2.
  • Alfredo Avila, "La presidencia de Vicente Guerrero", in Will Fowler, ed., Gobernantes mexicanos, Mexico City, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2008, t. I, p. 27-49. ISBN 978-968-16-8369-6.
  • Huerta-Nava, Raquel (2007). El Guerrero del Alba. La vida de Vicente Guerrero. Grijalbo.  

External links

  • Biografía de Vicente Guerrero en el Portal Oficial del Gobierno del Estado de Guerrero
  • Vicente Guerrero: An Inventory of His Collection at the Benson Latin American Collection
  • Vicente Guerrero on Mexconnect.com
  • Guerrero on gob.mex/kids
  • Letters about Vicente Guerrero hosted by the Portal to Texas History.
Political offices
Preceded by
Guadalupe Victoria
President of Mexico
1 April – 17 December 1829
Succeeded by
José María Bocanegra
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