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Walafrid Strabo

Walafrid, alternatively spelt Walahfrid, surnamed Strabo (or Strabus, i.e. "squint-eyed") (c. 808 – 18 August 849), was an Alemannic monk and theological writer.


  • Works 1
    • Theological works 1.1
      • De exordiis et incrementis quarundam in observationibus ecclesiasticis rerum 1.1.1
    • Historical and poetical works 1.2
    • Ascribed works 1.3
  • Notes 2
  • References 3
  • Primary sources 4
  • External links 5


Walafrid Strabo's works are theological, historical and poetical.

Theological works

There is an exposition of the first 20 psalms (published by Pez. in Thes. Anecdota nova, iv.) and an epitome of Rabanus Maurus's commentary on Leviticus. An Expositio quatuor Evangeliorum is also ascribed to Walafrid.

De exordiis et incrementis quarundam in observationibus ecclesiasticis rerum

Of singular interest also is his De exordiis et incrementis quarundam in observationibus ecclesiasticis rerum, written between 840 and 842 for Reginbert the Librarian.[1]

It deals in 32 chapters with ecclesiastical usages, churches, altars, prayers, bells, pictures, baptism and the Holy Communion. Incidentally, he introduces into his explanations the current German expressions for the things he is treating of, with the apology that Solomon had set him the example by keeping monkeys as well as peacocks at his court. Of special interest is the fact that Walafrid, in his exposition of the Mass, shows no trace of any belief in the doctrine of transubstantiation as taught by his famous contemporary Radbertus; according to him, Christ gave to his disciples the sacraments of his Body and Blood in the substance of bread and wine, and taught them to celebrate them as a memorial of his Passion.

In the last chapter, Walahfrid describes a hierarchical body of both lay and ecclesiastical officers, using

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain

  • Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes

External links

  • (Liber) de exordiis et incrementis quarundam in observationibus ecclesiasticis rerum
    • ed. and tr.
    • Visio Wettini, tr. comm. Francesco Stella, Pisa, Pacini 2009
    • ed.
  • Visio Wettini [1]

Primary sources


  1. ^ Airlie, "The aristocracy in the service of the state in the Carolingian period", p. 97.
  2. ^ a b Airlie, "The aristocracy in the service of the state in the Carolingian period", pp. 98-9.
  3. ^ See Karlfried Froehlich, "The Printed Gloss," in Biblia Latina cum Glossa Ordinaria, Facsimile Reprint of the Editio Princeps Adolph Rusch of Strassburg 1480/81, intro. Karlfried Froehlich and Margaret T. Gibson (Brepols: Turnhout, 1992).
  4. ^ Lindberg, David. (1978) Science in the Middle Ages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Johannes Trithemius, Abbot of Sponheim (1462-1516), credited him with the authorship of the Glossa Ordinaria or Ordinary Glosses on the Bible. The work dates, however, from the 12th century, but Trithemius' erroneous ascription remained current well into the 20th century.[3] The work is now attributed to Anselm of Laon and his followers.[4]

Ascribed works

Codex Sangallensis 878 may be Walafrid's personal breviarium, begun when he was a student at Fulda.

The curious poem De Imagine Tetrici takes the form of a dialogue; it was inspired by an equestrian statue depicting a nude emperor on horseback believed to be Theodoric the Great which stood in front of Charlemagne's palace at Aachen.

His most famous poem is the Liber de cultura hortorum which was later published as the Hortulus, dedicated to Grimald. It is an account of a little garden that he used to tend with his own hands, and is largely made up of descriptions of the various herbs he grows there and their medicinal and other uses. Sage holds the place of honor; then comes rue, the antidote of poisons; and so on through melons, fennel, lilies, poppies, and many other plants, to wind up with the rose, "which in virtue and scent surpasses all other herbs, and may rightly be called the flower of flowers."

Walafrid's poetical works also include a short life of St Blathmac, a high-born monk of Iona, murdered by the Danes in the first half of the 9th century; a life of St Mammas; and a Liber de visionibus Wettini. This last poem, like the two preceding ones written in hexameters, was composed at the command of "Father" Adalgisus, and based upon the prose narrative of Heto, abbot of Reichenau from 806 to 822. It is dedicated to Grimald, brother of Wettin, his teacher. At the time he sent it Walafrid had, as he himself tells his audience, hardly passed his eighteenth year, and he begs his correspondent to revise his verses, because, "as it is not lawful for a monk to hide anything from his abbot", he fears he may be beaten with deserved stripes. In this curious vision, Wettin saw Charles the Great suffering purgatorial tortures because of his sexual incontinence. The name of the ruler alluded to is not indeed introduced into the actual text, but "Carolus Imperator" form the initial letters of the passage dealing with this subject. Many of Walahfrid's other poems are, or include, short addresses to kings and queens (Lothar, Charles, Louis, Pippin, Judith, etc.) and to friends (Einhard; Grimald; Rabanus Maurus; Tatto; Ebbo, Archbishop of Reims; Drogo, bishop of Metz; etc.).

Walahfrid's chief historical works are the rhymed Vita sancti Galli (The Life of Saint Gall), which, though written down nearly two centuries after this saint's death, is still the primary authority for his life, and a much shorter life of Saint Othmar, abbot of St. Gall (died 759). A critical edition of them by E. Dümmler is in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica "Poetae Latini", ii. (1884), p. 259 ff.

Historical and poetical works

[2] While Johannes Fried is wary of associating this idealised scheme too much with current ideas about state and court in Louis' reign, Karl Ferdinand Werner and Stuart Airlie are rather more sympathetic to its relevance for contemporary thought at court: what gives the text added interest is that it was written by a courtier (Walahfrid), representing a "view from the centre".[2]

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