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Technical Resource Document

By Environmental Protection Agency

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Book Id: WPLBN0000000494
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 3.2 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Technical Resource Document  
Author: Environmental Protection Agency
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Agency, E. P. (n.d.). Technical Resource Document. Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.org/


Description
Excerpt: DISCLAIMER AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This document was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The mention of company or product names is not to be considered an endorsement by the U.S. Government or the EPA. This Technical Resource Document consists of five sections. The first section is EPA's Profile of the gold industry; the remaining four sections are Site Visit Reports from site visits conducted by EPA. The Profile Section was distributed for review to the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Mines and Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, the Western Governors Association, the Interstate Mining Compact Commission, the American Mining Congress, and Environmental Public Interest Groups. Summaries of the comments and EPA's responses are presented as an appendix to the Profile Section. The Site Visit Report Sections were reviewed by individual company, state, and Federal representatives who participated in the site visit. Comments and EPA responses are included as Appendices to the specific Site Visit Sections. EPA is grateful to all individuals who took the time to review sections of this Technical Resource Document.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1.0 MINING INDUSTRY PROFILE: GOLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 ECONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INDUSTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 1.3 ORE CHARACTERIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 1.3.1 Types of Gold Ore Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1.3.1.1 Sediment-Hosted Disseminated Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1.3.1.2 Volcanic-Hosted Epithermal Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1.3.1.3 Porphyry Copper-Related Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 1.3.1.4 Greenstone Gold Quartz Vein Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 1.3.2 Mineral Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8 1.4 GOLD EXTRACTION AND BENEFICIATION PRACTICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10 1.4.1 Extraction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12 1.4.1.1 Surface Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14 1.4.1.2 Underground Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 1.4.2 Beneficiation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16 1.4.2.1 By-Product Gold (Flotation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17 1.4.2.2 Gravity Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18 1.4.2.3 Amalgamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18 1.4.2.4 Cyanidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18 1.5 WASTES AND OTHER MATERIALS ASSOCIATED WITH GOLD EXTRACTION AND BENEFICIATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-44 1.5.1 Extraction and Beneficiation Wastes and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-45 1.5.1.1 RCRA Defined Wastes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-45 1.5.1.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-48 1.5.2 Waste and Materials Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-48 1.5.2.1 RCRA Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-49 1.5.2.2 Non-RCRA Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-50 1.6 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51 1.6.1 Ground Water/Surface Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51 1.6.1.1 Acid Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-51 1.6.1.2 Mine Dewatering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-52 1.6.1.3 Release of Cyanide Solution From Active Heap Leach Units . . . . . . . . 1-52 1.6.1.4 Release From Heap Leach Piles During and After Closure (Reclamation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-53 1.6.2 Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

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