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Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms

By Clark, Thomas A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000068698
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 8.3 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms  
Author: Clark, Thomas A.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Clark, T. A. (n.d.). Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms. Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.org/


Description
Excerpt: The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500), the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 (PL 95-217) and the Water Quality Act of 1987 (PL 100-4) explicitly state that it is the national policy that the discharge of toxic substances in toxic amounts be prohibited. Thus, the detection of chronically toxic effluents plays an important role in identifying and controlling toxic discharges to surface waters. This manual is the second edition of the marine and estuarine chronic toxicity test manual for effluents, first published EPA/600/4-87/028) by EMSL-Cincinnati in May 1988. It provides updated and standardized methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to estuarine and marine organisms for use by the S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regional programs, the state programs, and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Section Number Page 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Short-Term Methods for Estimating Chronic Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Types of Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Static Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Toxicity Test Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Health and Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 General Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Safety Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 General Laboratory and Field Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Disease Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Safety Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Waste Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Facilities, Equipment, and Test Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Test Oranisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Laboratory Water Used for Culturing and and Test Dilution Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Effluent and Receiving Water Sampling and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Test Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Quality of Test Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Food Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Acceptability of Chronic Toxicity Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Analytical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Calibration and Standardizatio

 

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