World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Ambient Aromatic Hydrocarbon Measurements at Welgegund, South Africa : Volume 14, Issue 4 (17/02/2014)

By Jaars, K.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003980586
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 39
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Ambient Aromatic Hydrocarbon Measurements at Welgegund, South Africa : Volume 14, Issue 4 (17/02/2014)  
Author: Jaars, K.
Volume: Vol. 14, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Van Zyl, P. G., Beukes, J. P., Pienaar, J. J., Laakso, L., Hakola, H., Guenther, A.,...Aaltonen, H. (2014). Ambient Aromatic Hydrocarbon Measurements at Welgegund, South Africa : Volume 14, Issue 4 (17/02/2014). Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.org/


Description
Description: Environmental Science and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg–Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

Summary
Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

Excerpt
Air Resources Laboratory: Gridded Meteorological Data Archives, available at: http://www.arl.noaa.gov/archives.php (last access: 12 January 2012), 2009.; Arey, J., Obermeyer, G., Aschmann, S. M., Chattopadhyay, S., Cusick, R. D., and Atkinson, R.: Dicarbonyl products of the OH radical-initiated reaction of a series of aromatics hydrocarbons, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 683–689, 2009. %in list; Atkinson, R.: Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of organic compounds, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 2, 1–216, 1994. %not in list; Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101, 2000. %in list; Bates, M. S., Gonzalez-Flesca, N., Sokhi, R., and Cocheo, V.: Atmospheric volatile organic compound monitoring, Ozone induced artefact formation, Environ. Monit. Assess., 65, 89–97, doi:10.1023/A:1006420412523, 2000. %in list; Beukes, J. P., Dawson, N. F., and Van Zyl, P. G.: Theoretical and practical aspects of Cr(VI) in the South African ferrochrome industry, S. African Inst. Min. M., 110, 743–750, 2010. %not in list; Beukes, J. P., Van Zyl, P. G., and Ras, M.: Treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastes in the South African ferrochrome industry – review of currently applied methods, S. African Inst. Min. M., 112, 413–418, 2012. %not in list; Beukes, J. P., Vakkari, V., van Zyl, P. G., Venter, A. D., Josipovic, M., Jaars, K., Tiitta, P., Laakso, H., Kulmala, M., Worsnop, D., Pienaar, J. J., Järvinen, E., Chellapermal, R., Ignatius, K., Maalick, Z., Cesnulyte, V., Ripamonti, G., Laban, T. L., Skrabalova, L., du Toit, M., Virkkula, A., Siebert, S. J., and Laakso, L.: Source region plume characterisation of the interior of South Africa, as measured at Welgegund, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., in preparation, 2014.; Birdsall, A. W., Andreoni, J. F., and Elrod, M. J.: Investigation of the role of bicyclic peroxy radicals in the oxidation mechanism of toluene, J. Phys. Chem., 114, 10655–10663, 2010. %not in list; Bonn, B., Kulmala, M., Riipinen, I., Sihto, S.-L., and Ruuskanen, T.: How biogenic terpenes govern the correlation between sulphuric acid concentrations and new particle formation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12209, doi:10.1029/2007JD009327, 2008. %in list; Borbon, A., Locoge, N., Veillerot, M., Galloo, J. C., and Guillermo, R.: Characteristics of NMHCs in a French urban atmosphere: overview of the main sources, Sci. Total Environ., 292, 177–191, 2002. %in list; Brasseur, G, Orlando, J., and Tyndall, G.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.; Brocco, D., Fratarcangelli, R., Lepore, L., Petricca, M., and Ventrone, I.: Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Rome, Atmos. Environ., 31, 557–566, 1997. %in list; Burger, J. W.: Identification and comparison of the volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air in the Cape Town metropolis and the Vaal Triangle, PhD-thesis, North-West University, Potchefstroom, Republic of South Africa, 2006.; Calvert, J. G., Atkinson, R., Becker, K. H., Kamens, R. M., Seinfeld, J. H., Wallington, T. J., and Yarwood, G.: The Mechanism of Atmospheric Oxidation of Aromatics Hydrocarbons, Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 2002. %not in list; Carter, W. P. L.: Development of ozone reactivity scales for volatile organic compounds, J. Air Waste Manage., 44, 881–899, 1994. %in list; Chiloane, H. J.: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis from Cape Town haze ll study, MSc-thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa, 2005.; Coeur-Tourneur, C., Henry, F., Janquin, M.-A., and Brutier, L.: Gasphase reaction of hydroxyl radicals with m-, o- and p-cresol, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 38, 553–562, 2006. %in list; Crutzen, P. J. and Andreae, M. O.: Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Using a Wrf Simulation to Examine Region... (by )
  • Global Modeling of Secondary Organic Aer... (by )
  • The Dispersion Characteristics of Air Po... (by )
  • Alignment of Atmospheric Mineral Dust Du... (by )
  • Characterization of the South Atlantic M... (by )
  • The Vamos Ocean-cloud-atmosphere-land St... (by )
  • Corrigendum to Boundary Layer Physics Ov... (by )
  • Spectral Light Absorption by Ambient Aer... (by )
  • Validation of Sciamachy Tropospheric No2... (by )
  • Horizontal Distributions of Aerosol Cons... (by )
  • Online Coupled Regional Meteorology-chem... (by )
  • The Shortwave Radiative Forcing Bias of ... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.