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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry : Revised 5th Edition

By Albert Martini

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Book Id: WPLBN0100002503
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Reproduction Date: 9/1/2014

Title: The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry : Revised 5th Edition  
Author: Albert Martini
Volume: Revised 7th Edition
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science
Collections: Science, Authors Community, Most Popular Books in China
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Albert Martini

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Martini, A. (2014). The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry : Revised 5th Edition. Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.org/


Description
The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries.

Summary
The Renaissance of Science. The story of the Atom and Chemistry. The Magnificent Scientists and their Fabulous Accomplishments. A Fantastic Dream and Journey into the Past, Present and Future in the World of Chemistry.

Excerpt
INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were carefully chosen to represent its content and purpose. The word RENAISSANCE signifies the rebirth of the glorious world of science as we enter the 21st Century. The word STORY, instead of HISTORY, was selected to allow the literary, philosophical and scientific licenses, which gave us the freedom to explore the domain of CHEMISTRY without becoming dull, oblivious and obtuse, but with a sense of joyfulness, fascination and adventure. The word ATOM was chosen to celebrate the existence of a majestic and enigmatic entity, which transcends human intelligence and imagination, and enters the QUANTUM REALM of the supernatural with lucid integrity and harmony. The word SCIENTIST was used to bring to the forefront the magnificent SCIENTISTS, to whom we pay tribute and dedicate this book with admiration, gratitude and respect, for their fabulous accomplishments. The words DREAM and JOURNEY were selected because this book represents exactly that, a DREAM and a JOURNEY into the past, present and future of the CHEMICAL SCIENCES with the hope to fulfill the origin, evolution and destiny of the scientific community and humanity. Chemistry and the sciences in general, have an innate beauty and a prodigious force that guides us with their fantastic order, symmetry and cycles, to attain the truth. A truth that constitutes the structures and functions of our existence! Science has a built in wisdom and intuitiveness, which compels us to find the inherited order of our world, in terms of NATURAL LAWS and MATHEMATICAL FORMULATIONS with great strength, uniformity and significance. Each new discovery and invention, although modest in itself, always adds to solving, one step at a time, the complex and apparent puzzle of nature. The light from each scientific truth, contributes to the glorious unveiling of the MASTER PLAN that guides our path to a greater understanding of our UNIVERSE. It is our divine obligation to create our own light of truth, until there are enough scientific candles to make our lives shine with lasting joy, peace and hope! Every age has its own dreams, but we must leave behind the dreams of yesterday and take the torch of knowledge to find our own dreams and the dreams of tomorrow, which will create the beautiful world of the future! Notwithstanding, let us remember that the BONE YARD of HUMAN HISTORY is rich in abandoned and forgotten SCIENTIFIC TREASURES that await our sense of loyalty to guide us back to their origin, evolution and destiny! The famous Irish essayist, GEORGE BERNARD SHAW said, and I paraphrase: What a pity that we must waste YOUTH on the YOUNG! This exquisitely true statement brought to mind the conviction that we must never give up on the young, for they are our future! It also made me reevaluate my ideas and sentiments on age, in that age is not a matter of years, but more significantly, age is a matter of zest, commitment, imagination, hope, faith and love in the treatment of life and humanity. It is also wise to remember that we do not tell our GENES who we are, instead it is our GENES who tell us who we are! The writing of this book was guided by the gentle hand of our little and fascinating friend, the ATOM, through the exalting world of PHILOSOPHY (the love of learning) and of SCIENCE (the love of truth). In this fantastic journey, I had the privilege and pleasure of re-learning an old lesson of life, that man’s struggle to learn and to better himself and the world around him, was, is and always will be a worthy and noble cause and endeavor! Preparing this book was truly a labor of love that helped me to survive the pain of losing a loved one! It was actually very easy, ha ha ha! The secret was, just to follow our little friend, the ATOM, who led the way with great virtuosity, imagination, intuitiveness, kindness and a great deal of patience. While writing, a question appeared from time to time, why take a journey into the past, when the present and the future are radiant with new and fantastic promising ideas? The answer was always multifaceted and full of wisdom: The past helps to recreate perspective. The past points to old-fashioned wisdom. The past keeps us from repeating obvious mistakes. The past may help to understand the present and the future ahead. The past may contain hidden and forgotten treasures that we shall not abstain from exploring and evaluating. Finally, I feel compelled once again to make us aware of the fact that we owe much gratitude, admiration and respect to those scientists of the past, who built the prodigious foundation that supports the magnificent scientific development that we enjoy today! As I recall, from a very early and pre-school age, my curiosity and desire to observe and learn was self-evident. Now, at an advanced and post-school age, I took a look at my library of books on the life of scientists and the history of the sciences, and soon came to the realization that there, in front of me, was 2000 years of scientific history, just waiting to show me the knowledge and wisdom of the ages past! The result was, spending four years to write a 5000-page manuscript about the 2000-year history of ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY and MICROBIOLOGY/MEDICINE. Each science represents, in itself, a book. Because my University training was mainly in CHEMISTRY, this is the first book in the series. The writing of a 5000-page manuscript was indeed a labor of love that afforded me the magnificent opportunity to interview and interact, through my library, with over 600 of the most brilliant scientists, including some of the most intuitive and creative NOBEL LAUREATES! This 2000-year study covers: The CLASSIC GREEK/ROMAN ERA. The ALCHEMY of ANTIQUITY and the MIDDLE AGES The RENAISSANCE ERA and the AGE OF REASON. THE MODERN ERA and the various SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS. The AGE of COPERNICUS, KEPLER and GALILEO on ASTRONOMY. The AGE of NEWTON, LEIBNIZ, DESCARTES and LAPLACE on ASTRONOMY and MATHEMATICS The AGE of the BERNOULLIS, DESCARTES, FERMAT, EULER and GAUSS on MATHEMATICS. The AGE of VOLTA, OERSTED, DAVY, FARADAY and MAXWELL on ELECTROMAGNETISM. The AGE of MORSE, BELL, EDISON, HERTZ and MARCONI on COMMUNICATION. The AGE of MALPIGHI, VAN LEEUWENHOEK, VESALIUS, MONDINO, HARVEY and HOOKE on MICROSCOPY and ANATOMY. The AGE of LINNAEUS, CANDOLLE, CUVIER, OWEN and AGASSIZ on TAXONOMY and classification at large. The AGE of DARWIN, WALLACE, LAMARCK, SPENSER and MALTHUS on EVOLUTION. The AGE of MENDEL, De VRIES, SCHLEIDEN, SCHWANN and FLEMMING on GENETICS and BIOLOGY. The AGE of PASTEUR, KOCH, EHRLICH, LISTER, WAKSMAN, SALK and SABIN on MICROBIOLOGY and VACCINES. The AGE of CROOKES, BECQUEREL, the CURIES and RONTGEN on RADIOACTIVITY, RADIATIONS and RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS. The AGE of RUTHERFORD, THOMSON, BOHR, SODDY, ASTON, CHADWICK and SOMMERFELD on MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS. The AGE of PLANCK, HEISENBERG, LORENTZ, FERMI, OPPENHEIMER and EINSTEIN on ATOMIC PHYSICS, QUANTUM THEORY and RELATIVITY. The AGE of BOYLE, CAVENDISH, PRIESTLEY, BLACK, SCHEELE, STAHL and RUTHERFORD on ELEMENTAL CHEMISTRY. The AGE of LAVOISIER, DALTON, BERZELIUS and MENDELEEV on MODERN CHEMISTRY, ATOMIC THEORY and the PERIODIC TABLE. The AGE of KEKULE, LIEBIG, WOHLER, GAY-LUSSAC, BERTHELOT, LAURENT, DUMAS, PASTEUR, VAN’T HOFF and HAWORTH on ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. The AGE of AVOGADRO, WOLLASTON, FRANKLAND, ARRHENIUS and MOSELEY on MODERN CHEMISTRY. The AGE of the FISCHERS, CALVIN, PERUTZ, KENDREW, HOPKINS, KREBS, LIPMANN, TODD, SANGER, PAULING, CHARGAFF, WILKINS, WATSON and CRICK on PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AMINO ACIDS, PROTEINS, the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE and BIOCHEMISTRY AT LARGE. It took four years to write about the 2000-YEAR HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY and the various sciences. However, it actually required my entire professional life to develop the knowledge base, experience, wisdom and idiosyncrasy on which this study of the sciences has its foundations. The STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY was written in two parts, which should complement and justify each other. The first part, tells the STORY of the CHEMICAL SCIENCES from its ALCHEMY beginnings, through its magnificent evolution and fabulous accomplishments, and to its destiny, as an intuitive, creative and fantastic science. The second part is an attempt to recreate the prodigious lives of the most outstanding and brilliant chemists of the last 20 centuries. The author has created THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY with the sincere hope that this labor of love translates in the reader’s mind into a love for learning and into some degree of joy, satisfaction and inspiration. The most basic and sincere intention of this study is to motivate the scientific community into a genuine life of learning, teaching and research. A life, which is truly exemplary and rewarding to all of humanity, particularly to the dedicated CHEMISTS who give their lives to SCIENCE with unconditional COMMITMENT and NOBILITY.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS SOME IDEAS WITH UNIQUE SIGNIFICANCE.....................1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY................................77 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 77 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY................................... 83 HISTORY IS THE ART OF RECREATING THE PAST TO DREAM AND CREATE THE FUTURE HISTORY IS THE ART OF DRAWING WITHOUT AN ERASER AND THEREFORE IT LASTS FOR EVER, AND ITS WISDOM IS ETERNAL AND CAPABLE OF TRANSCENDING THE VIRTUES OF HUMANITY AND TIME. THE CAVE MAN ...............................................................................................................83 THE MAN WHO HAD IN FRONT OF HIS EYES THE ENTIRE WORLD TO DREAM, WONDER, VENTURE AND CREATE HIS MAGNIFICENT FUTURE WITH UNIMAGINABLE EXPECTATIONS. ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY.............84 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN.....................................................85 THE MAN IN HIS JOURNEY TO SEARCH FOR HOME AND HIS FUTURE. ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY ............................................................. 87 SOME FOOD FOR THOUGHT...............................................................................92 LET THE MIND BE & KNOWLEDGE WILL SHINE WITH DIVINE CREATIVITY. THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS............................................93 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher ............................................................ 96 Proposed the four basic elements: EARTH, WATER, AIR and FIRE. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher ............................................................ 98 The FOUNDER of the ATOMIC THEORY of ANTIQUITY. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer ................................................... 100 Proposed the GEOCENTRIC THEORY where the EARTH and not the SUN was the CENTER OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. XIV ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY & SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE ...... 101 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES ..................................108 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY .................................................................. 109 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist .................................................................................. 114 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer ................... 114 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist ............................................ 115 One of the most FAMOUS ALCHEMISTS of the MIDDLE AGES. PHILIPPUS A. PARACELSUS (1493-1541) Swiss Physician and Alchemist ....... 117 - Helped to transform the pseudoscience of ALCHEMY into the new science of CHEMISTRY during the 16th century. MORE ABOUT THE PSEUDOSCIENCE OF ALCHEMY ............................................ 119 THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE ............................................................................122 A SCIENCE REPRESENTS A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE CHARACTERIZING A DISCIPLINE IN OUR NATURAL HISTORY. THE ADVENT OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE (15th-16th centuries) and THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON ............................... 122 THE PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE...... 123 FRANCIS BACON, RENE DESCARTES, BENEDICTUS SPINOZA, GOTTFRIED LEIBNIZ and FRANCOIS MARIE VOLTAIRE. FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN SCIENCE............125 THE FIRST GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT.................................126 NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Polish Astronomer .......................................... 50 Proposed (1543) his HELIOCENTRIC THEORY of our PLANETARY SYSTEM where the SUN and not the EARTH was at its center. CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN (1809-1882) English Naturalist ................................ .127 Proposed(1859) his THEORY of EVOLUTION entitled THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, which revolutionized the WORLD of GENETICS, BIOLOGY and the SCIENCES in general. XV THE SECOND GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT ............................129 IN THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES.....................129 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian Astronomer and Physicist........................ 129 One of the Founders of Modern Science and the Scientific Method. Proposed his Laws of Falling Bodies, during the 16th century. Supported the Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer and Mathematician ......... 129 Developed (early 17th century) the Laws of Planetary Motion and proposed that the planets followed elliptical orbits around the sun. Supported the Copernicus’ Heliocentric Theory. SIR ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) English Physicist & Mathematician ............... 129 Published (1687) his scientific masterpiece, Pricipia Mathematica. Proposed (1665-1666) his Laws of Motion and his Concept of Gravity, and created his new mathematics of CALCULUS. RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French Philosopher and Mathematician ......... 129 Created his CARTESIAN COORDINATES and ANALYTIC GEOMETRY, which appeared in his book published in 1637. ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Physicist and Chemist ....................................... 129 Proposed in the 1600’s his CORPUSCULAR THEORY, reviving Democritus’ theory. Published (1661) The SCEPTICAL CHEMIST, which initiated MODERN CHEMISTRY. WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) English Physician and Physicist........................ 130 Published (1600) his book DE MAGNETE, which started the GREAT REVOLUTION, on ELECTROMAGNETISM. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist......................... 130 Developed (early 1800’s) his THEORY of ELECTROMAGNETISM, which created a new SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. Proposed that LIGHT was an ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879) Scottish Mathematician & Physicist ... 130 Developed (1873) his famous FOUR EQUATIONS UNIFYING the phenomenon of electromagnetism. This was a brilliant accomplishment. Developed (1860’s) his KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. XVI IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES ..................................................................................131 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628-1694) Italian Physiologist and Microscopist ..... 131 One of FOUNDERS of the SCIENCE of MICROSCOPY in the 17th century. Unveiled the NATURE of HUMAN ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY. MONDINO De LUZZI (1275-1326) Italian Anatomist .................................................. 131 One of the GREATEST HUMAN ANATOMISTS of the RENAISSANCE. ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514-1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist ................................ 131 Published (1543) his MASTERPIECE on The STRUCTURE of the HUMAN BODY, which revolutionized the world of HUMAN ANATOMY. WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) English Physician ..................................................... 131 Published (1628) his book, “On the Motions of the Heart and Blood”, where he proposed the existence of the CIRCULATORY SYSTEM of the BLOOD and HEART in the HUMAN BODY. ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703) English Physicist ........................................................... 132 One of the GREAT MICROSCOPISTS. Published (1665) his book, Micrographia, where he reported finding the “CELL” in cork tissue. MATTHIAS JAKOB SCHLEIDEN (1804-1881) German Botanist............................. 58 Proposed (1838) his CELL THEORY in plants and presented the CELL as the BASIC BUILDING UNIT of LIVING ORGANISMS. THEODOR SCHWANN (1810-1882) German Physiologist ........................................ 134 Proposed (1839) his CELL THEORY in animals. WALTHER FLEMMING (1843-1905) German Anatomist .......................................... 134 Characterized (1882) the ENTIRE PROCESS of CELL DIVISION in ANIMAL CELLS. GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822-1884) Austrian Monk and Botanist ............. 134 Proposed (1860’s) his LAWS of HEREDITY, which revolutionized The world of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist ...................... 134 Proposed (mid 1800’s) his Germ Theory of Diseases, which revolutionized the world of MICROBIOLOGY and MEDICINE. Developed methods of vaccination for various diseases. Proposed (1860’S) the PROCESS of PASTEURIZATION. XVII THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMISTRY .....................................................................136 EARLY SCENARIO IN THE WORLD OF CHEMISTRY ....................................................... 136 SOME FUNDAMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS................................................................................ 136 SOME ESSENTIAL NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS ............................................................ 136 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY...........................................................136 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Chemist and Physicist ....................................... 141 One of the founders of modern chemistry. Published (1661) his book, The Sceptic Chemist, which represented the beginning of MODERN CHEMISTRY. Proposed (1600’S) his Corpuscular theory reintroducing DEMOCRITUS ’ATOMIC THEORY from the classic Greek Era. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY ......................................... 144 JAN B. VAN HELMONT (1580-1644) Flemish Physician and Alchemist .............. 144 Performed (1600’s) his famous WILLOW TREE EXPERIMENT. Regarded WATER as the PRINCIPLE of VEGETATION on which PLANTS LIVED. JOHN MAYOW (1641-1679) English Chemist.................................................................. 146 Proposed his COMBUSTIBLE PRINCIPLE(or OXYGEN) present in the BLOOD. GEORG STAHL (1660-1734) German Chemist and Physician .................................. 146 Proposed (1700’s) his confusing idea of the PHLOGISTON THEORY. STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761) English Botanist and Chemist ................................. 147 FOUNDER of MODERN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY in the 1700’s. JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730-1799) Dutch Physician and Plant Physiologist ........... 148 Characterized (1779) the PROCESSES of PHOTOSYNTHESIS and RESPIRATION, which became very useful during the early development of plant physiology and biology. SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MODERN CHEMISTRY.......................................151 JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799) Scottish Chemist............................................................... 153 Discovered (1756) his FIXED AIR or CARBON DIOXIDE. HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) English Chemist and Physicist ........................ 155 Discovered (1766) his INFLAMMABLE AIR ( or HYDROGEN). XVIII Synthesized (1784) WATER. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804) English Chemist ...................................................... 160 DISCOVERED(1774) his DEPHLOGISTICATED AIR ( or OXYGEN), a FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENT in the development of MODERN CHEMISTRY. KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786) Swedish Chemist ...................................... 162 DISCOVERED (1771-1772) his FIRE AIR ( or OXYGEN) DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749-1819) Scottish Chemist.............................................. 88 DISCOVERED (1772) NITROGEN, which LAVOISIER characterized later. THE ERA OF ANTOINE LAVOISIER, JOHN DALTON AND J. J. BERZELIUS......165 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY....................................................165 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist ............................. 168 The FOUNDER OF MODERN CHEMISTRY in the 18th century. Introduced the QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. Proposed (1770’S) his OXYGEN THEORY of COMBUSTION. Proposed (1789) his LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER. LAVOISIER published three FUNDAMENTAL CHEMISTRY BOOKS. JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist ..................................................174 Proposed (1800-1808) his MODERN ATOMIC THEORY from the CHEMISTRY point of view. Created the ATOMIC SYMBOLS and a table of ATOMIC WEIGHTS. DALTON published (1808) his NEW SYSTEM OF CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY. .JONS JAKOB BERZELIUS (1779-1848) Swedish Chemist...................................179 One of the FOUNDERS OF MODERN CHEMISTRY who supported DALTON’S ATOMIC THEORY and LAVOISIER’S CHEMISTRY. Proposed (1803) his THEORY of the CHEMICAL RADICALS. Published (1803) his TEXTBOOK in CHEMISTRY Created (1813) the MODERN ATOMIC SYMBOLS and the CHEMICAL FORMULAS. Prepared (1828) his new table of the RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS. . PENDING ISSUES IN CHEMISTRY ........................................................................185 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION 187 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY...............................................................190 PERIOD OF TRANSITION BETWEEN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES................. 190 XIX THE BEGINNING OF CHEMISTRY IN THE 19th CENTURY ................................... 194 MARTIN KLAPROTH (1743-1817) German Chemist................................................... 194 DISCOVERED (1789) the RADIOACTIVE ELEMENT, URANIUM, which was destined to become the most important RADIOISOTOPE in the history of NUCLEAR ENERGY, ATOMIC PHYSICS & HUMANITY. WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828) English Chemist and Physicist .... 196 Proposed (1790’s) his CONCEPT of the EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS. The first to characterize (1802) the ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. Discovered (1810 ) the AMINO ACID CYSTEINE WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1753-1815) English Chemist................................................. 198 Electrolyzed for the first time (early 1800’s) WATER into HYDROGEN and OXYGEN using VOLTA’S NEW BATTERY. JOHANN WILHELM RITTER (1776–1810) German Physicist.................................. 199 Discovered (early 1800’S) the ultraviolet radiations. WILLIAM HERSCHEL (1738-1822) German-English Astronomer ......................... 201 Discovered (1800) the infrared radiations. HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) English Chemist............................................................ 203 The FOUNDER ( 1800’S) of the NEW SCIENCE of ELECTROCHEMISTRY. Discovered POTASSIUM, SODIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, BARIUM and other elements. Proved (1800’S) that HYDROGEN was the ESSENTIAL component of ACIDS and not OXYGEN as Lavoisier believed. This was a FUNDAMENTAL CONTRIBUTION to CHEMISTRY. JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850) French Chemist ..................................... 208 Introduced (1800’s) the ANALYTIC METHOD OF TITRATION. Postulated (1809) his LAW of COMBINING VOLUMES. Determined (1800’s) that HYDROGEN (and not OXYGEN) was the ESSENTIAL ELEMENT in ACIDS. LAVOISIER believed the contrary and he was wrong. AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856) Italian Physicist................................................... 212 Proposed (1811) the AVOGADRO’S NUMBER (6.022 X 1023 ATOMS Per MOLE), which provided a solid scientific foundation for CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-1873) German Chemist .................................................... 215 The founder of MODERN AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. Discovered (1824) the ISOMERS with FRIEDRICH WOHLER. Developed (1930’S) new QUANTITATIVE METHODS of XX ANALYSIS in ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Postulated the MINERAL THEORY in SOIL CHEMISTRY. ROBERT WILHELM BUNSEN (1811-1899) German Chemist .................................. 219 Developed (1859) with GUSTAV KIRCHHOFF the first SPECTROSCOPE to characterize the LIGHT SPECTRUM. This was a FUNDAMENTAL ACCOMPLISHMENT of great scientific value in PHYSICS & CHEMISTRY. Created (1855-1857) the BUNSEN BURNER that we use in chemistry. EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899) English Chemist ............................................... 222 Proposed (1852) his NEW THEORY of the VALENCE of the chemical elements, a FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT in CHEMISTRY. Started (1868) the SCIENCE of ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION And POLLUTION CONTROL. STANISLAO CANNIZZARO (1826-1910) Italian Chemist........................................... 225 Reintroduced the use of AVOGADRO’S HYPOTHESIS and NUMBER. Organized the First International Chemical Congress with F. KEKULE. THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL CONGRESS of 1860 .......................... 225 Leading European Chemists met to unify the New Chemistry. WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850) English Chemist ........................................................... 228 PROPOSED (1815) the PROUT’S HYPOTHESIS, suggesting that all CHEMICAL ELEMENTS consisted of a CONGLOMERATE of HYDROGEN ATOMS, & that the ATOMIC WEIGHTS of the ELEMENTS were INTEGRAL MULTIPLES of the ATOMIC WEIGHT of HYDROGEN. PERIODICITY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THE LAW OF TRIADS.............232 JOHANN WOLFGANG DOBEREINER (1780-1849) German Chemist ................... 232 Introduced (1829) his LAW of TRIADS and the PERIODICITY of PROPERTIES of the ELEMENTS, which became the forerunner of MEDELEEV’S PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS.......................................235 DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEEV (1834-1907) Russian Chemist ....................... 235 Created (1869-1871) his PERIODIC TABLE of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, which became a FUNDAMENTAL SOURCE of INFORMATION in CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS. Published (1868-1870) his book, THE PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY. MENDELEEV AND HIS PERIODIC TABLE.................................................................238 MORE ABOUT THE PERIODIC TABLE................................................................................... 244 XXI WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-1916) Scottish Chemist ....................................................... 245 Discovered the INERT GASES in the 1890’s. THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE 19th CENTURY.............................................249 PIERRE JOSEPH PELLETIER (1788-1842) French Chemist ..................................... 249 JOSEPH BIENAIME CAVENTOU (1795-1877) French Chemist ............................... 249 CAVENTOU and PELLETIER isolated (1817) the GREEN PIGMENT in PLANTS, CHLOROPHYLL. CHLOROPHYLL was destined to become a very important chemical in the fundamental PROCESS of PHOTOSYNTHESIS JOSEPH KIDD (1775-1851) British Chemist and Physician....................................... 250 Isolated (1819) the flammable gas, NAPHTHALENE from COAL TAR. SAMUEL GUTHRIE (1782-1848) American Chemist and Physician ...................... 251 Discovered (1831) CHLOROFORM and its ANESTHETIC PROPERTIES. A NEW REVOLUTION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ................................................... 177 FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882) German Chemist ................................................. 253 A pioneer in ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Created for the fist time (1828) an ORGANIC COMPOUND (UREA) from an INORGANIC SUBSTANCE (AMMONIUM CYANATE), a REVOLUTIONARY IDEA in the NEW SCIENCE of CHEMISTRY. JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS (1800 -1884) French Chemist............................................. 257 PROPOSED (1830) with AUGUSTE LAURENT the THEORY of the FUNCTIONALGROUPS,whichledtotheclassificationof organic compounds into ALCOHOLS, ALDEHYDES, KETONES and ACIDS. JOHANN GUSTAV KJELDAHL (1849-1900) Danish Chemist .................................... 259 DEVELOPED (1883) a method to determine TOTAL NITROGEN in ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. AUGUSTE LAURENT (1807-1853) French Chemist ...................................................... 260 Proposed (1830) the concept of Functional groups with Jean Dumas. Introduced a new NOMENCLATURE to name ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. ADOLPH WILHELM KOLBE (1818-1884) German Chemist ..................................... 261 One of the early synthesizers of Organic Compounds. PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907) French Chemist ................................. 264 A PIONEER in ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Synthesized (1800’s) ORGANIC SUBSTANCES that did not exist in NATURE. XXII LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist ...................... 267 Proposed (mid 1800’s) his GERM THEORY of DISEASES, which revolutionized the new field of MICROBIOLOGY & MEDICINE. This was one of the most significant DISCOVERIES in SCIENCE, together with DARWIN’S THEORY of EVOLUTION, NEWTON’S THEORY of GRAVITY and EINSTEIN’S THEORY of RELATIVITY. Made significant contributions (1800’s) to the new science of POLARIMETRY and in characterizing OPTICAL ACTIVITY And the ASYMMETRY of CRYSTALS. Showed (1856) that FERMENTATION was a MICROBIAL PROCESS. Introduced (1860’s) the PROCESS of PASTEURIZATION. WILHELM KUHNE (1837-1900) German Physiologist ................................................ 272 PROPOSED (1876) the CONCEPT of ENZYMES as CATALYSTS in BIOCHEMISTRY. A FUNDAMENTAL and REVOLUTIONARY IDEA. EDUARD BUCHNER (1860-1917) German Chemist ..................................................... 274 Showed (1896) that FERMENTATION was essentially a chemical process. This was incorrect, PASTEUR proved (1856) conclusively that FERMENTATION was a BIOCHEMICAL or MICROBIAL PROCESS. EILHARDT MITSCHERLICH (1794-1863) German Chemist..................................... 275 Discovered (1819) the PHENOMENON of ISOMORPHISM, which became useful in the development of chemical analysis. ARCHIBALD SCOTT COUPER (1831-1892) Scottish Chemist ................................. 276 Suggested the use of DASHES or DOTTED LINES to represent CHEMICAL BONDS. This idea was later popularized by RICHARD ERLENMEYER and FRIEDRICH KEKULE in his STRUCTURAL FORMULAS. RICHARD AUGUST ERLENMEYER (1825-1909) German Chemist ....................... 277 Supported KEKULE’S STRUCTURAL FORMULAS and COUPER’S idea of using DASHES to represent CHEMICAL BONDS. THE NEW SCIENCE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.......................................................279 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM..............................................................279 Friedrich Kekule redefined ORGANIC CHEMISTRY as the CHEMISTRY of the CARBON ATOM. FRIEDRICH AUGUST KEKULE (1829-1896) German Organic Chemist............... 283 One of the FOUNDERS of MODERN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Developed (1800’s) the NEW CHEMISTRY of the CARBON ATOM. Created (1858) the STRUCTURAL FORMULA, the CARBON TO CARBON BONDS in the HYDROCARBON CHAINS, the MULTIPLE BONDS And the BENZENE RING, which revolutionized ORGANIC CHEMISTRY XXIII KEKULE’S STRUCTURAL FORMULA ...................................................................................... 284 KEKULE’S CARBON TO CARBON BONDS in HYDROCARBONS.............................287 KEKULE’S BENZENE RING ......................................................................................................... 214 JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN’T HOFF (1852-1911) Dutch Physical Chemist ......... 293 PROPOSED (1874) his THREE-DIMENSIONAL CARBON TETRAHEDRON, which helped to explain the MOLECULAR ASYMMETRY and the OPTICAL ACTIVITY observed in some organic compounds. This seemingly simple idea became one of the pillars of THEORETICAL CHEMISTRY. WILLIAM JACKSON POPE (1870-1939) English Chemist .......................................... 296 PROPOSED (1899) the CONCEPT of the ASYMMETRIC NITROGEN ATOM. He also found (1902) ASYMMETRY in other elements like SULFUR, SELENIUM and TIN. UNRAVELING THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF THE CARBON ATOM................297 DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ................. 297 THE PERKIN REACTION. THE HOFMANN DEGRADATION REACTION. THE FRIEDEL-CRAFTS REACTION. THE GRIGNARD REACTIONS. THE SABATIER- SENDERENS REACTION. THE DIELS- ALDER REACTION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTIC POLYMERS.................................................................. 302 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 19TH and 20TH CENTURIES...............303 JAMES WATT (1736-1819) Scottish Engineer................................................................. 304 Developed the Steam Engine. ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827) Italian Physicist................................................... 305 Invented (1800) the Electric Battery and created the Electric Current MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist......................... 306 Creator of the Theory of Electromagnetism in the early 1800’s. Inventor of the First Electric Motor and Electric Generator. JOSEPH HENRY (1797-1878) American Physicist ......................................................... 230 Developed an Electric Motor and the Electromagnets. SAMUEL FINLEY MORSE (1791-1872) American Inventor ...................................... 307 Inventor of the Telegraph and the Morse Code . Patented in 1840. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-1922) Scottish-American Inventor ........... 308 Invented the talking wire or telephone. Patented in 1876. XXIV GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874-1937) – Italian Electrical Engineer ....................... 308 Inventor of the wireless radio communication. Patented in 1896. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY.............................................309 ALFRED BERNHARD NOBEL (1833-1896) Swedish Inventor ................................ 310 The inventor of Dynamite (1866) and creator of the NOBEL PRIZE AWARD (1896) CHARLES GOODYEAR (1800-1860) American Inventor ............................................ 310 Created (1844) the VULCANIZED RUBBER that was instrumental in putting the NEW AUTOMOBILES on the road with soft rubber tires during the 20TH century. WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1838-1907) English Chemist ......................................... 311 Pioneered (mid 1800’s) the synthesis of DYES and PERFUMES, which made possible the staining of CELLS, CELL ORGANELLES, TISSUES and MICROORGANISMS for an adequate characterization. JOHANN FRIEDRICH BAEYER (1835-1917) German Chemist ................................ 313 Synthesized the dye Indigo Blue in 1879. KARL JAMES GRAEBE (1841-1927) German Chemist................................................. 313 Determined (mid 1800’s) the Chemical Structure of the Aromatic Compounds. AUGUST WILHELM VON HOFMANN (1818-1892) German Chemist................... 314 Synthesized (1858) the dye Red-Purple or Magenta. OTTO WALLACH (1847-1931) German Organic Chemist .......................................... 314 Characterized the Chemical Structure of TERPENES. LEOPOLD STEPHEN RUZICKA (1887-1976) Croatian-Swiss Chemist ................ 314 Synthesized the perfume Musk. GEORGE EASTMAN (1854-1932) American Inventor ................................................. 315 Created (late 1800’s) the Photographic Film and the Kodak Camera. DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMISTRY AT THE END OF THE 19th CENTURY.........317 SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-1927) Swedish Chemist.............................. 319 Proposed his Ionization Theory, 1884-1887. Proposed his Theory of Catalysis in 1889. Both of these theories revolutionized the SCIENCE of CHEMISTRY. ALFRED WERNER (1866-1919) German-Swiss Chemist ........................................... 325 PROPOSED (1891) his theory of the COORDINATION BONDS. XXV FRIEDRICH W. OSTWALD (1853-1932) Russian-German Physical Chemist.... 327 One of the FOUNDERS of PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. Supported (1894) the CONCEPT of CATALYSTS and other ideas of SVANTE ARRHENIUS, JOSIAH GIBBS and JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF. . JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839-1903) American Physicist & Mathematician. 329 One of the FOUNDERS of THERMODYNAMICS in the 19th CENTURY. A BRILLIANT SCIENTIST who PIONEER the field of CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS. DEVELOPED (1870’S) the CONCEPTS of FREE ENERGY, CHEMICAL POTENTIAL, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM and the PHASE RULE. ERNST MACH (1838-1916) Austrian Physicist ............................................................... 330 Proponent of the MACH’S PRINCIPLE indicating that SPACE had no properties of its own. SOREN PETER SORENSEN (1868-1939) DANISH CHEMIST..................................... 334 Proposed (1909) his FAMOUS pH CONCEPT ( pH= -log H+ ), which was FUNDAMENTAL in characterizing ACIDITY and ALKALINITY. FRITZ HABER (1868-1934) German Chemist ................................................................. 338 Developed (early 1900’s) a method to utilize the NITROGEN GAS in the ATMOSPHERE, which made a fantastic contribution to the CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. The atmosphere has 78 % NITROGEN GAS. HERMANN STAUDINGER (1881-1965) German Chemist ......................................... 340 Characterized (1926) the STRUCTURE of PLASTIC POLYMERS. FRITZ PREGL (1869-1930) Austrian Chemist ................................................................. 341 Introduced (1909-1913) his MICRO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, which became very important in the characterization of the NUCLEIC ACIDS ( RNA and DNA) and other ESSENTIAL ORGANIC MOLECULES found in very limited quantities in the BIOCHEMICAL WORLD THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS (1868-1928) American Chemist .................... 342 Revised the ATOMIC WEIGHTS of the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. FREDERICK SODDY (1877-1956) English Chemist ...................................................... 344 Proposed (1910-1912) his CONCEPT of the CHEMICAL ISOTOPES within the CHEMICAL ELEMENTS, which was an extraordinary discovery in CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS.. Developed (early 1900’s) the LAWS of RADIOACTIVE DECAY and the RADIOACTIVE SERIES together with the brilliant physicist, ERNEST RUTHERFORD. XXVI FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON (1877-1945) English Chemist and Physicist........... 348 Improved (1919) the MASS SPECTROGRAPH and the CHARACTERIZATION of the CONCEPT of the ISOTOPES proposed by FREDERICK SODDY in 1910- 1912. Discovered several important ISOTOPES and RADIOISOTOPES. Helped in the understanding of the CONCEPT of the RELATIVE ATOMIC WEIGHTS, which is a fundamental idea in CHEMISTRY and PHYSICS.. WILLIAM DRAPER HARKINS (1873-1951) American Chemist .............................. 351 PROPOSED the CONCEPT of the PACKING FRACTION and the HYDROGEN to HELIUM CONVERSION with the RELEASE of NUCLEAR ENERGY ( E=MC2 ). ARTHUR JEFFREY DEMPSTER (1886-1950) Canadian- American Physicist ... 277 Discovered (1935) the rare RADIOISOTOPE, URANIUM-325, which was to become the FAMOUS SOURCE of NUCLEAR ENERGY (E=MC2 ). THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY...............................................................354 THE LEGACY FROM THE 18th and 19TH CENTURIES ...................................................... 354 DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY...................................................................... 354 DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ...................................................................... 356 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM ......................................................................... 357 ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF THE QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL .................. 359 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY..........372 THE NEW ATOMIC MODEL FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW .................. 374 THE FOUNDERS OF ATOMIC PHYSICS ..................................................................... 376 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist.............................................. 377 One of the founders of MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS Discovered (early 1900’S) the NUCLEUS & the PROTONS of the ATOM. Discovered the ALPHA and BETA particles emitted by the ATOM, which revolutionizes the world of ATOMIC PHYSICS. Proposed (1911) his ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS POINT of VIEW. JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940) English Physicist ......................................... 377 Discovered (1897) the ELECTRONS of the ATOM. XXVII NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist .................................................. 373 One of the FOUNDERS of MODERN ATOMIC PHYSICS Proposed (1913) his QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS point of view, which we use today as our CLASSIC REFERENCE. Contributed to the development of QUANTUM MECHANICS, the understanding of the QUANTUM LEAP of ELECTRONS and the SPECTRAL LINES produced by the various chemical elements. MAX KARL PLANCK (1858-1947) German Physicist ................................................... 384 Proposed (1900) HIS QUANTUM THEORY, which revolutionized the WORLD of PHYSICS and gave birth to QUANTUM MECHANICS. ARNOLD JOHANNES SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) German Physicist ................. 389 Proposed (1916) the ELLIPTICAL ORBITS of ELECTRONS in BOHR’S ATOM. THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE 20TH CENTURY......392 FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS THAT NURTURED THE MAGNIFICENT GROWTH OF THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ................................... 392 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND THE SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD ...........394 ERNST AUGUST RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer .................... 395 Built (1932) one of the first ELECTRON MICROSCOPES together with MAX KNOLL. JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist .................................. 395 Built (1937) the first practical ELECTRON MICROSCOPE together with A. F. PREBUS. VLADIMIR KOSMA ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist ... 396 Built (1939) an improved Electron Microscope & the first TV Camera. THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION....................................397 THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS BY WILHELM K. ROENTGEN ......................................... 397 X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE.....................................400 CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA (1877-1944) English Physicist ................................... 401 Characterized the nature of X-Rays in 1911. MAX THEODOR VON LAUE (1879-1960) German Physicist .................................... 401 Proposed X-Ray Diffraction as an Analytical Technique in 1912. WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG (1862 - 1942) English Physicist....................................... 402 WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG (1890 - 1971) English Physicist ............................. 402 FATHER and SON, DEVELOPED the MATHEMATICS for X-RAY DIFFRACTION. XXVIII HENRY MOSELEY (1887-1915) English Physicist ......................................................... 405 PROPOSED (1914) the CONCEPT of the ATOMIC NUMBER, which became a FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTY of the ATOM THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIOISOTOPES..........................409 THE PHENOMENON OF RADIOACTIVITY AND RADIOISOTOPES ........................... 409 WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-1919) English Physicist .................................................... 410 Invented (1876) the VACUUM TUBE or CROOKES TUBE and discovered the CATHODE RAYS. WILHELM KONRAD ROENTGEN (1845-1923) German Physicist ......................... 412 Discovered (1895) the X-RAYS, which became extremely useful in SCIENCE and MEDICINE and started a revolution on the study of ATOMIC RADIATIONS. ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL (1852-1908) French Physicist................................ 413 Discovered (1896) the PHENOMENON of RADIOACTIVITY, which started a new SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION in the fields of ATOMIC PHYSICS and ATOMIC CHEMISTRY. PIERRE CURIE (1859-1906) French Chemist .................................................................. 414 MARIE CURIE (1867-1934) French Chemist .................................................................... 414 The CURIES expanded the CHARACTERIZATION of the PHENOMENON of RADIOACTIVITY as a UNIQUE PROCESS in the ATOM. Discovered (1898) the Radioactive Elements, RADIUM & POLONIUM. REVISITING THE ATOM................................................................................................416 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist .............................................. 416 Discovered the NUCLEUS and the PROTONS in the Atom. Proposed (1911) his ATOMIC MODEL from the PHYSICS point of view. NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist .................................................. 420 Proposed (1913) his QUANTIZED ATOMIC MODEL from the Physics point of view, which we use today as our CLASSIC MODEL. JAMES CHADWICK (1891-1974) English Physicist ...................................................... 422 Discovered (1932) the LAST of the SUBATOMIC PARTICLE, the NEUTRON, which completed the STRUCTURE of the ATOM from the PHYSICS and CHEMISTRY points of view. This was a significant development in NUCLEAR and ATOMIC HISTORY. XXIX RADIOISOTOPES AND THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE ............426 GILBERT NEWTON LEWIS (1875-1946) American Chemist ................................... 427 Helped to develop the new science of Thermodynamics. First to prepare (1933) Heavy Water with Deuterium, which became an important NEUTRON MODERATOR during NUCLEAR FISSION. HAROLD CLAYTON UREY (1893-1981) American Chemist ..................................... 429 UREY was the first to find (1931-1932) the elusive HEAVY HYDROGEN ISOTOPE, DEUTERIUM, which became important in preparing HEAVY WATER to be used as a NEUTRON MODERATOR in NUCLEAR CHAIN-REACTIONS. Prepared (1930’s) RADIOISOTOPES for CARBON, NITROGEN and OXYGEN, which became ESSENTIAL in BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH STANLEY LLOYD MILLER (1930- 2007) American Chemist .................................... 432 Conducted (1953) his famous laboratory experiment to simulate the ORIGIN of LIFE under controlled laboratory conditions. THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE..........................................................432 GYORGY HEVESY (1885-1966) Hungarian Chemist ..................................................... 432 Introduced (1918) the RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE in CHEMISTRY and BIOLOGY, which facilitated detailed research with LIVING ORGANISMS. RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898-1941) German-American Biochemist ........... 435 Advanced (1930’S) the use of the RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE withLIVINGORGANISMS,usingtheRADIOISOTOPES Of CARBON, HYDROGEN, NITROGEN & OXYGEN. This facilitated detailed studies in various BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMS. Characterized the BIOCHEMISTRY of FAT METABOLISM. CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE .....................................437 MIKHAIL S. TSVETT (TSWETT) (1872-1919) Russian-Italian Chemist .............. 437 Introduced (1903-1906) CHROMATOGRAPHY as an ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE to ISOLATE PLANT PIGMENTS using POWDERED ALUMINA as the SEPARATING MEDIUM. RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872-1942) German Chemist ........................................ 438 Pioneered the use of chromatography as an analytical technique. Characterized (1910’s) the structure of the heme and chlorophyll molecules. FRANK HAROLD SPEDDING (1902- 1984) American Chemist .............................. 439 Introduced CHROMATOGRAPHY using an ION EXCHANGE RESIN to ADSORB and ISOLATE RARE IONS in solution. XXX ARCHER JOHN MARTIN (1910- 2002 ) English Biochemist .................................... 441 Introduced with RICHARD SYNGE (1944) PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY as an ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE, which became an instant success in BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH. Introduced the new process of gas chromatography. Characterized the amino acid composition of proteins. RICHARD LAURENCE SYNGE (1914- 1994) English Biochemist ........................... 442 Introduced (1944) paper chromatography with Archer J. Martin. DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES............444 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869) Scottish Physical Chemist .................................... 445 One of the founders of colloidal chemistry and physical chemistry. Pioneered (1800’s) the study of diffusion, dialysis and osmosis as analytical techniques. Characterized the difference between crystalloids and colloids. WILHELM PFEFFER (1845-1920) German Botanist .................................................... 449 Pioneered (1800’s) studies on osmosis and osmotic pressure. ARTHUR HARDEN (1865-1940) English Biochemist................................................... 451 Differentiated (1904) the nature of enzymes and coenzymes. Established the importance of intermediate metabolism. HANS KARL EULER-CHELPIN (1873-1964) German-Swedish Chemist.............. 452 Characterized the chemical nature of coenzymes. THEODOR H. SVEDBERG (1884-1971) Swedish Chemist ......................................... 454 Developed the supercentrifuge to study colloidal materials. Created a system of classification for colloidal materials. Developed new methods in electrophoresis. ARNE WILHELM TISELIUS (1902-1971) Swedish Chemist ...................................... 456 Developed (1937) new methods in electrophoresis to study proteins. BIOCHEMISTRY, THE NEW CHEMISTRY OF THE 20THCENTURY ....................458 THE LEGACY FROM INORGANIC, ORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY .......... 458 THE APPLICATION OF THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS .......462 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE....................................................................................464 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898- 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist................................. 467 Created (1945) the first submicroscopic studies on cell anatomy. XXXI GEORGE EMIL PALADE (1912- 2008) Canadian-American Physiologist ........... 467 Made submicroscopic studies of the cell organelles (1950’s) Identified the mitochondria as the powerhouse of the cell. CHRISTIAN RENE De DUVE (1917- 2013) Belgian Cytologist ................................ 468 Discovered the lysozymes using the electron microscope. THE X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE ....... 469 THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE..........................................................470 CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE .....................................471 DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES............472 ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY ................... 473 THIS WAS THE CENTURY OF FANTASTIC DISCOVERIES . EMIL HERMANN FISCHER (1852-1919) German Chemist ....................................... 476 Characterized (1880’S) the chemical structure of sugars and purines. Characterized (1900’S) the structure of amino acids & proteins. HANS FISCHER (1881-1945) German Chemist ............................................................... 480 Characterized (1930’s) the chemical structure of the HEME MOLECULE and the CHLOROPHYLL MOLECULE. MELVIN CALVIN (1911- 1997) American Biochemist ................................................. 484 Characterized (1957) the entire process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS, one of the most fundamental processes in plant physiology and biology. MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ (1914- 2002) Austrian-British Biochemist.............. 487 Determined (1960) the chemical structure of the protein HEMOGLOBIN. JOHN COWDERY KENDREW (1917- 1997) English Biochemist............................. 488 Determined (1960) the chemical structure of the protein MYOGLOBIN. FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS (1861-1947) English Biochemist .................. 490 Developed the concepts of ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS (1900) and VITAMINS (1906) WILLIAM CUMMING ROSE (1887- 1985) American Biochemist............................ 491 Confirmed (1930’s) the CONCEPT of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS and determined (1940’s) that there were only 8 ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS in the HUMAN DIET. Calculated the minimum daily requirements for amino acids. PAUL KARRER (1889-1971) Swiss Chemist..................................................................... 493 Synthesized (1930’s) vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin B-2. XXXII WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH (1883-1950) English Chemist .............................. 496 Created (1920’s-1930’s) the Haworth Formulas or sugar-ring structures. RICHARD KUHN (1900-1967) Austrian-German Chemist......................................... 498 Synthesized (1930’s) vitamin B-6, vitamin A and vitamin B-2. HANS ADOLF KREBS (1900-1981) German-British Biochemist............................. 499 Characterized (1932) the UREA CYCLE during DEAMINATION. Characterized (1940 ) the KREBS’ CYCLE as the MAJOR ENERGY PRODUCING MECHANISM in the MITOCHONDRIA of CELLS. The MITOCHONDRIA became the POWER-HOUSE of the CELL. FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN (1899- 1986) German-American Biochemist............ 502 Characterized (1940’S) the PHOSPHATE ESTERS (AMP, ADP & ATP) and their ENERGY BONDS. Helped in the characterization of the KREBS CYCLE with his Discovery of COENZYME A in 1947. ALEXANDER ROBERTUS TODD (1907- 1997) Scottish Chemist ........................... 504 Synthesized (1947) ADP (ADENOSINE DI-PHOSPHATE) and ATP (ADENOSINE TRI-PHOSPHATE). Synthesized (1940’S) the various NUCLEOTIDES in the NUCLEIC ACIDS. PHOEBUS AARON LEVENE (1869-1940) Russian-American Chemist................. 505 First to identify (early 1900’s) the NUCLEIC ACIDS ,RNA ( RIBONUCLEIC ACID) and DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID). Identified the NUCLEOTIDES as the BUILDING BLOCKS of the NUCLEIC ACIDS. PETER DENNIS MITCHELL (1920- 1992) English Chemist ...................................... 507 Identified the mitochondria as the energy factory in cells. Characterized the energy transfer mechanism in cells. FREDERICK SANGER (1918- 2013) English Biochemist ............................................ 509 Characterized (1953) & synthesized (1964) the INSULIN MOLECULE. Determined the AMINO ACID SEQUENCE in PROTEIN MOLECULES. Characterized (1977)) the NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE in the DNA MOLECULE of a small VIRUS. FREDERICK GRANT BANTING (1891-1941) Canadian Physiologist.................... 512 Isolated (1921) the PROTEIN MOLECULE, INSULIN, which controls DIABETES. VINCENT Du VIGNEAUD (1901-1978) American Biochemist ................................. 514 Characterized (1942) the chemical structure of BIOTIN and In 1953 the AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of the PROTEIN, OXYTOCIN. XXXIII LINUS CARL PAULING (1901 - 1994) American Chemist .......................................... 517 Proposed his THEORY of ELECTRON RESONANCE. Published (1939) his classic book, The Nature of the Chemical Bond.... Helped to characterize the chemical structure of the DNA molecule. ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905- 2002) Austrian- American Biochemist ....................... 520 Characterized (1940’s) the four NITROGENOUS BASES (ADENINE, THYMINE, GUANINE and CYTOSINE) present in NUCLEIC ACIDS. MAURICE HUGH WILKINS (1916- 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist .......... 521 Helped to characterize the chemical structure of the DNA molecule. FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916- 2004) English Biochemist ...................................... 523 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Biochemist .......................................... 523 CRICK and WATSON created (1953) their famous MODEL of the DOUBLE HELIX DNA MOLECULE, which revolutionized the WORLD of GENETICS and BIOLOGY. THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY....................529 THE MAGNIFICENT SCIENTISTS & THEIR FABULOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS THE CHEMISTS AND THEIR LIVES ....................................................... 533 THE GREEK AND ROMAN ERA....................................................................................533 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 B.C.) Greek Philosopher .......................................................... 533 DEMOCRITUS (470-380 B.C.) Greek Philosopher .......................................................... 537 CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer ................................................... 542 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES ................................... 543 GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist .................................................................................. 545 OMAR KHAYYAM (1048-1131) Persian Astronomer and Mathematician ......... 546 BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406-1490) Italian Alchemist.............................................. 546 PHILIPPUS A. PARACELSUS (1493-1541) Swiss Physician and Alchemist ....... 549 THE BIRTH OF MODERN SCIENCE ............................................................................551 THE ADVENT OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION DURING THE AGE OF REASON ......................................... 551 THE PHILOSOPHERS OF SCIENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF KNOWLEDGE...... 551 FUNDAMENTAL EVENTS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN SCIENCE............553 THE FIRST GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT.................................553 XXXIV NICOLAS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) Polish Astronomer ......................................... 553 CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN (1809-1882) English Naturalist ............................... 553 THE SECOND GENERATION IN SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT ............................554 IN THE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES.....................554 GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) Italian Astronomer ................................................... 554 JOHANN KEPLER (1571-1630) German Astronomer ................................................. 554 ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) English Scientist ............................................................. 554 RENE DESCARTES (1596-1650) French Mathematician ............................................ 555 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) British Scientist............................................................... 555 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist ................................................................. 555 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist ............................. 555 WILLIAM GILBERT (1544-1603) English Scientist....................................................... 556 MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) English Physicist and Chemist......................... 556 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL(1831-1879) Scottish Mathematician & Physicist .... 556 IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES ..................................................................................556 MARCELLO MALPIGHI (1628-1694) Italian Microscopist and Anatomist......... 556 MONDINO De LUZZI (1275-1326) Italian Anatomist .................................................. 556 ANDREAS VESALIUS (1514-1564) Flemish-Italian Anatomist ................................ 556 WILLIAM HARVEY (1578-1657) English Physician ..................................................... 556 ROBERT HOOKE (1635-1703) English Physicist ........................................................... 557 MATTHIAS JAKOB SCHLEIDEN (1804-1881) German Botanist............................. 557 THEODOR SCHWANN (1810-1882) German Physiologist ........................................ 557 WALTHER FLEMMING (1843-1905) German Anatomist .......................................... 557 GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822-1884) Austrian Botanist ................................... 557 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Microbiologist and Chemist ...................... 559 THE BIRTH OF MODERN CHEMISTRY ..................................................................... 561 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CHEMISTRY...........................................................561 ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) Irish Chemist and Physicist ....................................... 563 SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY ......................................... 566 PIERRE GASSENDI (1592-1655) French Philosopher and Scholar........................ 567 XXXV JAN BAPTISTA VAN HELMONT (1580-1644) Flemish Chemist & Physician.... 568 JOHN MAYOW (1641-1679) English Physiologist ......................................................... 569 GEORG ERNST STAHL (1660-1734) German Chemist ................................................ 570 STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761) English Botanist and Chemist ................................. 572 JAN INGENHOUSZ (1730-1799) Dutch Physician & Plant Physiologist ............... 573 SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS IN MODERN CHEMISTRY.......................................574 JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799) Scottish Chemist............................................................... 574 HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810) English Chemist and Physicist ......................... 576 JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804) English Chemist ...................................................... 581 KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786) Swedish Chemist ...................................... 584 DANIEL RUTHERFORD (1749-1819) Scottish Chemist.............................................. 586 THE ERA OF ANTOINE LAVOISIER, JOHN DALTON AND J. J. BERZELIUS......588 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY....................................................588 ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794) French Chemist ............................. 589 JOHN DALTON (1766-1844) English Chemist ................................................................. 593 JONS JAKOB BERZELIUS (1779 – 1848) Swedish Chemist ....................................... 598 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY...............................................................603 THE BEGINNING OF CHEMISTRY IN THE 19TH CENTURY..................................607 MARTIN HEINRICH KLAPROTH (1743-1817) German Chemist ........................... 607 ANDREAS SIGISMUND MARGGRAF (1709-1782) German Chemist..................... 609 WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828) English Chemist and Physicist .... 617 WILLIAM NICHOLSON (1753-1815) English Chemist................................................. 612 JOHANN WILHELM RITTER (1776-1810) German Physicist .................................. 613 WILLIAM HERSCHEL (1738-1822) German-English Astronomer ......................... 615 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778-1829) English Chemist............................................................ 617 JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850) French Chemist ..................................... 622 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776-1856) Italian Physicist................................................... 624 JUSTUS VON LIEBIG (1803-1873) German Chemist .................................................... 627 ROBERT WILHELM BUNSEN (1811-1899) German Chemist .................................. 630 EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899) English Chemist ............................................... 632 XXXVI STANISLAO CANNIZZARO (1826-1910) Italian Chemist........................................... 634 WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850) English Chemist and Physiologist ........................ 636 ANTOINE JEROME BALARD (1802-1876) French Chemist ...................................... 638 PERIODICITY OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND THE LAW OF TRIADS.............639 JOHANN WOLFGANG DOBEREINER (1780-1849) German Chemist ................... 639 THE PERIODIC TABLE OF THE CHEMICAL ELEMENTS.......................................641 DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEEV (1834-1907) Russian Chemist ....................... 641 WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-1916) Scottish Chemist ....................................................... 645 THE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF THE 19TH CENTURY............................................648 PIERRE JOSEPH PELLETIER (1788-1842) French Chemist ..................................... 649 JOSEPH BIENAIME CAVENTOU (1795-1877) French Chemist ............................... 650 JOHN KIDD (1775-1851) British Chemist and Physician............................................ 650 SAMUEL GUTHRIE (1782-1848) American Chemist and Physician ...................... 651 A NEW REVOLUTION IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ................................................... 652 FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882) German Chemist ................................................. 652 JEAN BAPTISTE DUMAS (1800-1884) French Chemist.............................................. 654 JOHANN GUSTAV KJELDAHL (1849-1900) Danish Chemist .................................... 655 AUGUSTE LAURENT (1807-1853) French Chemist ...................................................... 656 ADOLPH WILHELM KOLBE (1818-1884) German Chemist ..................................... 658 PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907) French Chemist ................................. 659 LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) French Chemist and Microbiologist ...................... 661 WILHELM KUHNE (1837-1900) German Physiologist ............................................... 665 EDUARD BUCHNER (1860-1917) German Chemist ..................................................... 666 EILHARDT MITSCHERLICH (1794-1863) German Chemist..................................... 668 ARCHIBALD SCOTT COUPER (1831-1892) Scottish Chemist ................................. 669 RICHARD AUGUST ERLENMEYER (1825-1909) German Chemist ....................... 669 THE NEW SCIENCE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY.......................................................670 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM..............................................................670 FRIEDRICH AUGUST KEKULE (1829-1896) German Organic Chemist............... 674 XXXVII JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN’T HOFF (1852-1911) Dutch Physical Chemist ......... 682 WILLIAM JACKSON POPE (1870-1939) English Chemist ......................................... 687 VIKTOR MEYER (1848-1897) German Organic Chemist............................................ 688 THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES .............. 689 THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY.............................................689 ALFRED BERNHARD NOBEL (1833-1896) Swedish Inventor ................................ 690 CHARLES GOODYEAR (1800-1860) American Inventor ........................................... 692 WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1838-1907) English Chemist ......................................... 693 JOHANNFRIEDRICHBAEYER (1835-1917)GermanChemist...............................695 KARL JAMES GRAEBE (1841-1927) German Chemist................................................. 696 AUGUST WILHELM VON HOFMANN (1818-1892) German Chemist................... 696 OTTO WALLACH (1847-1931) German Organic Chemist .......................................... 698 LEOPOLD STEPHEN RUZICKA (1887-1976) Croatian-Swiss Chemist ................ 698 GEORGE EASTMAN (1854-1932) American Inventor ................................................. 698 DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMISTRY AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY ........ 701 SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-1927) Swedish Chemist.............................. 701 ALFRED WERNER (1866-1919) German-Swiss Chemist ........................................... 705 FRIEDRICH W. OSTWALD (1853-1932) Russian-German Physical Chemist.... 706 JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839-1903) American Physicist & Mathematician. 708 ERNST MACH (1838-1916) Austrian Physicist ............................................................... 710 SOREN PETER SORENSEN (1868-1939) Danish Chemist.......................................... 712 FRITZ HABER (1868-1934) German Chemist ................................................................. 713 HERMANN STAUDINGER (1881-1965) German Chemist.......................................... 714 FRITZ PREGL (1869-1930) Austrian Chemist ................................................................. 175 THEODORE WILLIAM RICHARDS (1868-1928) American Chemist .................... 717 FREDERICK SODDY (1877-1956) English Chemist ...................................................... 718 FRANCIS WILLIAM ASTON (1877-1945) English Chemist and Physicist........... 720 WILLIAM DRAPER HARKINS (1873-1951) American Chemist .............................. 724 ARTHUR JEFFREY DEMPSTER (1886-1950) Canadian-American Physicist .... 725 XXXVIII THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY...............................................................726 THE LEGACY FROM THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES................................................... 727 DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY...................................................................... 727 DEVELOPMENTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ...................................................................... 729 THE CHEMISTRY OF THE CARBON ATOM ......................................................................... 730 EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF THE 20TH CENTURY..........731 THE NEW ATOMIC MODEL FROM THE PHYSICS POINT OF VIEW .................. 746 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1871-1937) British Physicist .............................................. 746 NIELS HENRIK BOHR (1885-1962) Danish Physicist .................................................. 751 JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON (1856-1940) English Physicist ......................................... 756 MAX KARL PLANCK (1858-1947) German Physicist ................................................... 759 MAX BORN (1882-1970) German-British Physicist ...................................................... 761 ARNOLD JOHANNES SOMMERFELD (1868-1951) German Physicist ................. 762 JAMES CHADWICK (1891-1974) English Physicist....................................................... 762 PAUL ULRICH VILLARD (1860-1934) French Physicist............................................. 764 THE FIVE GREAT SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS OF THE 20th CENTURY ....... 767 THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND THE SUBMICROSCOPIC WORLD ...........768 ERNST AUGUST RUSKA (1906 - 1988) German Electrical Engineer .................... 768 JAMES HILLIER (1915 - 2007) Canadian-American Physicist .................................. 768 VLADIMIR KOSMA ZWORYKIN (1889 - 1982) Russian-American Physicist ... 769 ALBERT CLAUDE (1898 - 1983) Belgian-American Cytologist................................ 770 GEORGE EMIL PALADE (1912 - 2008) Romanian-American Physiologist......... 770 CHRISTIAN RENE De DUVE (1917 - 2013) Belgian Cytologist................................ 772 X-RAY DIFFRACTION AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE.....................................772 CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA (1877-1944) English Physicist ................................... 772 MAX THEODOR VON LAUE (1879-1960) German Physicist .................................... 775 WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG (1862-1942) English Physicist ......................................... 775 WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG (1890-1971) English Physicist ............................... 778 HENRY MOSELEY (1887 - 1915) English Physicist ....................................................... 778 RADIOISOTOPES AND THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE..............780 XXXIX IRENE JOLIOT – CURIE (1897 – 1956) French Physicist ............................................ 780 FREDERIC JOLIOT – CURIE (1900 – 1958) French Physicist ................................... 780 GILBERT NEWTON LEWIS (1875 – 1946) American Chemist ................................ 780 HAROLD CLAYTON UREY (1893 – 1981) American Chemist .................................. 782 STANLEY LLOYD MILLER (1930 - 2007) American Chemist ................................... 785 THE RADIOISOTOPE TRACING TECHNIQUE..........................................................786 GYORGY HEVESY (1885-1966) Hungarian Chemist ..................................................... 786 RUDOLF SCHOENHEIMER (1898-1941) German-American Biochemist............ 788 CHROMATOGRAPHY AS AN ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE .....................................789 MIKHAIL SEMENOVICH TSVETT (1872-1919) Russian-Italian Botanist .......... 789 RICHARD WILLSTATTER (1872-1942) German Chemist ......................................... 790 FRANK HAROLD SPEDDING (1902- 1984) American Chemist............................... 792 ARCHERJOHNMARTIN (1910-2002)EnglishBiochemist.....................................793 RICHARD LAURENCE SYNGE (1914 - 1994) English Biochemist........................... 795 DIFFUSION, DIALYSIS AND OSMOSIS AS ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES............796 THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869) Scottish Physical Chemist .................................... 796 WILHELM PFEFFER (1845-1920) German Botanist .................................................... 801 ARTHUR HARDEN (1865-1940) English Biochemist................................................... 802 HANS KARL EULER-CHELPIN (1873-1964) German-Swedish Chemist.............. 804 THEODOR H. SVEDBERG (1884-1971) Swedish Chemist ......................................... 805 ARNE WILHELM TISELIUS (1902-1971) Swedish Chemist ...................................... 807 ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE 20TH CENTURY....................810 EMIL HERMANN FISCHER (1852-1919) German Chemist........................................ 810 HANS FISCHER (1881-1945) German Chemist ............................................................... 812 MELVIN CALVIN (1911- 1997) American Biochemist ................................................. 813 MAX FERDINAND PERUTZ (1914 - 2002) Austrian-British Biochemist............. 815 JOHN COWDERY KENDREW (1917- 1997) English Biochemist............................. 815 CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN (1858-1930) Dutch Physician................................................ 818 FREDERICK GOWLAND HOPKINS (1861-1947) English Biochemist .................. 742 WILLIAM CUMMING ROSE (1887- 1985) American Biochemist............................ 820 XL PAUL KARRER (1889-1971) Swiss Chemist..................................................................... 821 WALTER NORMAN HAWORTH (1883- 1950) English Chemist ............................ 822 RICHARD KUHN (1900-1967) Austrian-German Chemist......................................... 823 HANS ADOLF KREBS (1900-1981) German-British Biochemist............................. 824 FRITZ ALBERT LIPMANN (1899 - 1986) German-American Biochemist........... 826 ALEXANDER ROBERTUS TODD (1907- 1997) Scottish Chemist ........................... 827 PHOEBUS AARON LEVENE (1869-1940) Russian-American Chemist................. 828 PETER DENNIS MITCHELL (1920 - 1992) English Chemist ..................................... 829 FREDERICK SANGER (1918 - 2013) English Biochemist ........................................... 830 FREDERICK GRANT BANTING (1891-1941) Canadian Physiologist.................... 832 VINCENT Du VIGNEAUD (1901-1978) American Biochemist ................................. 833 LINUS CARL PAULING (1901- 1994) American Chemist ........................................... 835 ERWIN CHARGAFF (1905 - 2002) Austrian-American Biochemist ....................... 836 MAURICE HUGH WILKINS (1916 - 2004) New Zealand-British Physicist ......... 837 JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928- ) American Biochemist .......................................... 838 FRANCIS HARRY CRICK (1916 - 2004) English Biochemist ..................................... 839 UNIVERSITIES IN THE USA, EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA........................ .845 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ...................................................................................................871 PUBLICATIONS WRITTEN BY THE AUTHOR......................................................871 RECOMMENDED LITERATURE ............................................................................................. 889

 

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